Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Impact of the Cold War On Vietnam Economy After two protracted wars with the French colonial empire, followed by a thirty year conflict with the US superpower, Vietnam was economically devastated. However, during the following forty years Vietnam has developed a vibrant and progressive economy and gradually achieved recognition as a major economic power within the South East Asian region. Since the unification in 1975, economic growth was identified as the most important factor in the strategic development of Vietnam. However, the first decade following the end of the war with the US was one in which the Cold War had a significant impact upon the Vietnam economy. Vietnam was lead by the Communist party and aligned its political and economic policies to strict socialist principles that mirrored the Soviet model and based decision-making on strict Communist criteria; (i) State or collective ownership of production means; (ii) Government administered supply of physical input and output; (iii) Lack of business autonomy, absence of factor markets, highly regulated goods and services markets; and (iv) A bias toward heavy industry in investments. (Vo Tri Thanh and Nguyen Thu Anh, (2006) Eaber Working Paper series: Paper No.8 Institutional changes for private sector development in Vietnam. p.3) The government policy meant that Vietnam was limited to trade mainly with other Communist countries and the outcome was a dramatic decline in the Vietnam economy and increasing poverty amongst the vast majority of the population. Further conflicts with China in 1979 and Cambodia in 1978 placed Vietnam in a position of further weakness and rather than concentrate on economic recovery, the improvement of labour skills, and agricultural and consumer goods production the Government focused on the building up of heavy industry. This period of Sovietisation brought even further problems for the Vietnam economy and the virtual decade of stagnation only began to end in 1986 with the introduction of Doi Moi.(Bui That Thang, (2001)After the war: 25 years of Economic Development in Vietnam, NIRA Review , p21-22). With consumption regularly greater than national income and numerous periods of famine relieved only by foreign aid, the decade from 1976 to 1986 marked a period of economic collapse i n Vietnam, and was only ended with the introduction of Doi Moi as the point marking when Vietnam switched from the Soviet model to a drive towards a free market economy. The renovation (Doi Moi) in 1986 brought about a dramatic change for post war Vietnam, as described by Thanh and Ha ( social inequality.., chap2 p63) who declare it a real turning point in the history of Vietnams economic development . It was shifted from a centrally planned economy to a new system of a market oriented economy. An important factor to note is that the decision to move towards a free market and thus, politically and ideologically change the basis of the Vietnam economy was made prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Vietnamese Government realised that the Soviet model was failing and that Vietnam faced a major economic crisis, with acute shortages of food, basic consumer goods, and inputs to agriculture and industry, and a growing external debt.(Thanh and Anh, 2006, p.3). It was decided to establish synchronous institutions of a market economy by socialism orientation (Ibid, p.2). The end of Cold War in 1991 followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union was a new challenge to Vietnam. Fortunately, Vietnam was already reforming its political and economic sectors by the time the collapse of the Soviet Union had ended and economic growth, policies to reduce macroeconomic instability and to introduce a multi-ownership structure were already in place. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union still meant that Vietnam faced a new future without the ideologically committed support of a Super Power, isolating Vietnam from much of the international community, a problems exasperated by the continued control of the country by the Communist Party. However, this essay will argue that although the major factor that impacted on many of the Eastern European countries for example, was the decline and fall of Communist administrations, in the case of Vietnam, the Communist Party remained in power, and provided the stability and security that provided the right conditions for imp ressive levels of continuous economic growth that has made Vietnam one of the tiger economies of South East Asia. It will also argue that the political and economic future of Vietnam is dependent on Vietnam remaining one of the most politically and security stable countries in South east Asia, and that stability is borne from the Communist party remaining in control of the country. This contrasts with the former Soviet Union countries who have made their economic futures dependent on the political system rejecting all the tenets of Communism and moving not only from a centrally controlled economy but also rejecting the idea of a one- party system. However, Vietnam has remained true to its political identity as a socialist republic while allowing reforms in politics and economics that has finally brought it recognition as a truly open and free market economy that has recently been rewarded with membership of the World Trade Organisation. The essay will follow the path through this process of reform and demonstrate how the economy has managed to develop to international recognition as one of the fastest growing economies in the World and still remained Communist. The end of the Cold War was universally seen as the end of Communism, and yet, like China, the Vietnam economy has been transformed whilst not drastically reforming the political system, which has remained true to the thoughts of Ho Chi Minh and commiserate with Marxist Leninism. The Communist Party still remains in power in Vietnam and its economic success is likely to re-enforce the belief that it will retain political control over the nation for decades to come. This essay will show how the Communist Party has managed to transform its economy and remain socialist. Prior to 1980s, Vietnam was still a backward agricultural country. In addition, as a socialist country, Vietnams economy was controlled and developed by a centrally planned system modelled on the Soviet Union. The Government played the dominant role in almost all activities and people who worked for government were paid by the system of budget subsidies. And all the trading actions were dominated by large State owned Enterprises that had collectivised almost all areas of economic activity, while private business was virtually non-existent (Pham, 2005,p4). Unfortunately, because of the mismatch between the management and the actual practices of the government, the economy of Vietnam didnt achieve any of their economic targets laid down in subsequent four year plans. The leaders then realised that centrally planned system was not a good structure for Vietnams development and whilst the Soviet Union was dramatically moving towards political collapse for the same reasons, Vietnams Commun ist Party believed that its ideological control over the country through one-party rule would actually have a positive impact on economic reform by providing an environment of stability and security, whilst establish an economy based upon capitalist principles, free markets and an open door set of policies. The Communist Party identified eight major policies of reform that would be used to bring about a complete transition of the economy and these were: Almost complete price liberalization; Large devaluation and unification of the exchange rate; Increases in interest rates to positive levels in real terms; Substantial reduction in subsidies to the SOE sector; Agricultural reforms through replacement of cooperatives by households as the basic decision-making unit in production and security of tenure for farm families; Encouragement of the domestic private sector and foreign direct investment (FDI); Removal of domestic trade barriers and creation of a more open economy. (Thanh and Anh, p.6). The main point here is that these are all significant movements towards policies found in the capitalist West and were only possible in the former Soviet client states such as Poland and East Germany by also moving the political systems towards the Western democracy model. However, the Sixth Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party-1986 believed that reform could follow the basic practical policies of the Western democracies but remain true to Communism by actually increasing state control and management and macro regulation. Communism would allow stability to remain in the political arena and the economic policies would themselves be directed towards maintaining socialist targets. This mix of socialist and capitalist policies to retain some level of equity amongst the general society is one now being discussed by many of the mainland European Union members who now identify a full Communist regime as still unacceptable, but the monetarist free market economy as equally at fault in the wake of the major financial crisis at the end of 2008. However, the main contention is that Vietnam remains a one party system, but there is very little evidence of any deep protest or wish to change this system by the vast majority of the Vietnamese population. Although we are examining here the performance of Vietnam since the Cold War it is thus essential to understand that unlike Russia and the former members of the USSR, Vietnam was able to transform its economy without major political regime change. (Thang, 2001, p.3). in the following paragraphs we look at how this was possible. Up to 1990 the Doi Moi reforms did bring about a number of improvements in the economy. From 1989 onwards, Vietnam was on the way to becoming one of the three main big rice exporters in the world, many state subsidies were disappearing and SOEs were constantly warned to reform and restructure, but not immediately encouraged to denationalize. Over these years the growth rate hovered around the 4.5% mark and the reforms were only slowly impacting upon Vietnams overall economic performance. Doi Moi involved a commitment to dismantling cooperatives and shifting production away from a household economy to the private sector, whilst also restructuring the state-owned sector to be more competitive. However, the real impact of policies changes did not really take effect until post-1990.The outcome was significant development with the GDP growth averaging 8.5% from 1990 to 1997 and averaging 6.5% from 1998 to 2003. Average foreign trade and Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) improved to nearly $18 billion USD by 2007 and agricultural production doubled from 1990 to 2005, while exports reached $49 billion USD per year by 2007. The per capita income rose from $220 USD in 1994 to $832 by 2007 and industrial production went from 27.3% of GDP in 1985 to 41.6% in 2007. Many industries reached impressive rates of growth, such as in the production of oil which went from 40,000 tons in 1986 to 7.6 million tons in 1990 and 12.5 million tons in 1998 (Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thang (2007) For eign Direct Investment in Vietnam: an overview and analysis. MPRA Archive Paper No1921). In the final part of this essay we concentrate on how FDI has been example of how the Communist Party, its policies of reform and the growth of the economy have become interlinked in bringing about a successful basis for even greater levels of development in the future. The levels of development are impressive with a reduction in the inflation rate from a nightmarish 774% in 1986 to a manageable 7.5% in 2006, while also achieving a poverty reduction level of 22% in 2005 from the 58.1% recorded in 1993. By 2007 there were 7067 FDI projects with a capital of $63.5billion US. This dramatic success was as a result of the following factors: Strategic location Stable economic and political environment Large natural mineral resources A young and well-educated workforce The ability to be an export platform for US and EU markets Liberal investment environment and a commitment by the Government to economic reform. In Vietnam it is the changing attitudes of the Communist Party and the Government towards the foreign economic sector as an important step towards economic growth that has significantly assisted the improvement of the economy. Alongside this have been the increasing levels of economic competition from other countries in the region and advances in international commitments helped by a changing political and ideological approach to participating in global economic trade (2006, 180). A significant factor in encouraging this change in attitudes has been the realization that FDI has a vital role to play in the mobilization of capital, technology, organizational and managerial skills (21). The radical change in the Communist Party attitude towards FDI was the institutionalization of FDI as a separate economic sector and recognition that FDI was a vital driving forced towards the overall development of the Vietnam economy (ibid). The improvement in investment in Vietnam has been assisted by a commitment throughout business, government and society to improve the image and identity of Vietnam, not least being in its international participation in political and economic forums. (Pham Thi Huyen 2009 The Nationality Factor in Assessing Hanoi Investment Environment in Business Environment and Policies in Hanoi, Hanoi, Vietnam) A further example of well the Vietnam economy has developed under the guidance of the Communist Party is the increasing participation of Vietnam in international forums and the successful entry into international forums such as the World Trade Organisation. Viet Nam joined the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1995, and committed to AFTA prior to the Enterprise Law reform period. Viet Nam also joined APEC in 1998.Vietnam has been an official member of WTO since 2007. Before that, there had been an increasingly strong public policy commitment to joining the WTO in recent years, and references were made to the need to reform to join the WTO in the policy debate on private sector development during the 2nd half of the 1990s. The enterprise reforms have been consistent with efforts to join the WTO, and the desire to join WTO has strengthened the hand of those pushing for improvements in the regulatory environment for business during the reform of the Enterprise Law . How ever, it is difficult to assess the extent to which the desire to join the WTO provided impetus for the Enterprise Law reforms Results, Challenges and Prospects, Vietnams Socio-Economic Development: A Social Science Review, No.31, Autumn Doanh, Le Dang, (2002), Foreign Direct Investment in Viet Nam: While it is difficult to identify connections between aspirations to join regional and international bodies and the Enterprise Law reforms, contacts with regional and international bodies have almost certainly helped the reform process. The economic performance of other ASEAN members and China are important benchmarks with which Viet Nams policy makers often compare their own performance. Even prior to joining ASEAN, Vietnamese officials went on study tours to ASEAN member countries to study issues related to improving the enabling environment for business development. A crucial development in the reform of the economy of Vietnam was the new Bilateral Trade Agreement (BTA) between Viet Nam and the USA, which was signed in December 2001, well after the major Enterprise Law reforms had been implemented. The private sector reforms implemented during the 2nd half of the 1990s almost certainly helped the process of reaching agreement on the BTA. This new agreement marked an important watershed in the relations not only between Vietnam and the US, but also the rest of the world. The signing of the agreement between Vietnam and its former enemy signified a leap forwards in the status of Vietnam and officially marked the end of most political and economic hostilities between the two former enemies. However, its signing was predicated on the absolute commitment of Vietnam to continue economic reform and also suggested that political reform; especially in democratization of Vietnam was almost certainly on the cards for the future (Ibid). Thus, Vietnam is a special case to examine in the study of the impact of the end of the Cold War upon Communist and former Communist states. In the case of Vietnam, not only have they remained under the one party rule of the Communist Party, they have also successfully reformed their economy, with the Communist Government able to provide the right levels of stability and security to continue to develop in the future. Thus, it is also a case of how the ideology of a country and its economic reform are linked, but the case of Vietnam it is an example of a country being ruled consistently under the socialist thought of Ho Chi Minh, maintaining one party rule but was also able to transform an economy from state central control to a free market. It is also known as a peaceful, secure and safe environment in the centre of a South East Asian region. A region that is more often now identified with the increasing problems of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism, such as in Thailand and Malays ia. While economic growth continues, the levels of extreme poverty are continually being lowered and the wealth of the economic success is to some extent spread down the masses through policies based on socialist principles, the one party rule of the Communist Party in Vietnam is likely to continue Ref. Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thang (2007) Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam: an overview and analysis. MPRA Archive Paper No1921) Le Dang, (2002), Results, Challenges and Prospects, Vietnams Socio-Economic Development: A Social Science Review, No.31, Autumn Doanh, Foreign Direct Investment in Viet Nam: Le The Gioi (2004), Moi truong dau tu tai Viet Nam qua goc nhin cua nha dau tu nuoc ngoai, Le The Gioi, Journal of Economics and Forecast, vol 1, 2004. Pham Thi Huyen (2009) The Nationality Factor in Assessing Hanoi Investment Environment in Business Environment and Policies in Hanoi, Hanoi, Vietnam Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thang (2007) Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam: an overview and analysis. MPRA Archive Paper No1921 Bui That Thang, (2001)After the war: 25 years of Economic Development in Vietnam, NIRA Review , p21-22). Vo Tri Thanh and Nguyen Thu Anh, (2006) Eaber Working Paper series: Paper No.8 Institutional changes for private sector development in Vietnam.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Social Inequality and Insecurity in Canada ASSIGNMENT-2 Social inequality illustrates a scenario in a society where there is disparity that has limiting effect on a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s social status and class. Inequality, in this reference, refers to the differences in status, experience, and outcomes among various groups of individuals in the society. The social inequality covers aspects like right to vote for every adult individual, right to speech, right to access property and right to education, quality of healthy living, quality of housing, traveling, vacationing and other social goods and services. It can also be viewed in the quality of family and neighborhood life, occupation, job satisfaction, and right to credit. Social insecurity refers to a condition in a society where people do not receive benefits because of their employment program. For instance privilege for retirement pensions, disability insurance and employment guarantee program. The provision of services may vary from country to country which may include health care, financial support during unemployment or retirement, safety at work. Insecurity rises from temporary work that does not give a commitment by the agency for permanent employment. This does not provide a reliable level of income or work for the workers. Temporary workers face dismissal at work place and lack job security. A recent study conducted in Canada revealed that the main difference between inequality and insecurity. Inequality describes the situation where the workers with equal labor productivity, ability, education, training and experience are treated unequal. They face inequality in employment selection procedure, job promotion, level of wages, training and other areas. However, insecurity is a situation where an employee has a perception that his or her job is uncertain and may come to an end sooner or later. This perception stands as a threat caused by the instability and unsteadiness of job or unsatisfied for possibly being fired at any time. The major causes of inequality and insecurity are different. Work inequality is affected characteristics like racism, gender inequality, skin color, age, family background, tradition, religion, physical fitness and the nationality of a person. However, work insecurity depends on work background, job importance, job content, work environment, job sat isfaction and career development. The effect of social inequality and insecurity on Canadian society is the division of labor market into good jobs and bad jobs. Social Inequality is dominated by professional and skilled workers and social insecurity is dominated by women and racist groups. The bad jobs provide little security of job and nearly about one tenth of the Canadian population is engaged in it. The birth of non-standard jobs is due to inequality as there is vulnerability of unemployment. Therefore, people hold multiple jobs at a time for survival. Temporary work is also a form of non-standard jobs wherein the job is dependent on the season and terms of contract with the company. A new type of agencies have been started which act as a broker between the employee and the employer. These agencies make arrangements for the temporary positions and individuals seeking jobs. The agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s income is derived from the difference between what it charges the company and what it pays the individual worker. Self-em ployment is referred to as a means to achieve flexibility and freedom from the regular unemployment, low wages, and insecurity. It is segmented between a primary and a secondary market. In the primary self-employment market, companies run on full-time basis and often have few employees who have access to the benefits. This market segment mostly consists of older men who all have an established network of potential clients. In the secondary self-employment market, there is more uncertainty of work, lack of control of labor market and protection and inadequate incomes. Studies have revealed that insecurity in Canada has increased over the past 20 years. The possibility of unemployment is a significant reason for insecurity in Canada. It varies from workers in permanent full-time jobs to workers in temporary positions in contract. Ã¢â¬Å"ChurnÃ¢â¬ refers to the very high turnover rates associated with certain occupations. A number of jobs, such as contract work and seasonal jobs show insecurity in their nature. Unemployment risk is higher for working individuals (25-64 years age) having a high school diploma or nothing. Unemployment risk is also higher for those in the primary sector than in the tertiary sector. But some areas of the tertiary sector, such as health and education, show low unemployment and infrequent job changes. While jobs like in hospitality and food services show higher unemployment and high turnover rates due to seasonal variations. In 2010, minimum wage levels ranged from $7.5 per hour in British Columbia to $9.5 per hour in Ontario. An individual earning $8.00 per hour and working forty hours per week will earn $16000 per year, if that individual does not take any off from work for the entire year. This individual living anywhere in Canada likely to have housing or other living expenses, job changes and will live below the low-income cut-off rate. The major causes of inequality in Canada were studied and deduced as follows:- Women: Women have always played a key role in the economy, yet their work, whether paid or unpaid, has never been recognized. Considerably, WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the labor market has hiked since the end of World War II. The reasons being: desire for economic independence, less number of children per family, changed marital status, better access to education. Radicalized groups: The employment patterns of radicalized groups are similar to those of women. They experience a low average income, low participation rates, and higher unemployment rates. They also are less involved into white-collar jobs and are more in to the pink and blue-collar jobs. These groups of workers are more employed in non-union positions. They are likely to be absent in professional and managerial occupations. Persons with disabilities:- The majority of these people are excluded from school, work and society. This group has low participation and employment opportunities and the rate of low incomes is twice that of persons with no disabilities. They face more of the fluctuations in the labor market and social exclusion. Young workers, Aboriginal persons and old workers: Aboriginal persons have very low employment level because of the differences in education levels. As increasing numbers of Aboriginal persons are getting their post-secondary education, they find themselves alongside others who are seeking work and are not included in Aboriginal organizations. The labor market patterns of older section of people are also changing particularly due to the factors like loss of jobs, pensions and mandatory retirement. The income level due to these conditions has not allowed them to purchase property or save money for retirement. Young workers constitute another group who face unemployment in Canada due to lack of experience which plays the major reason for their condition. Fig 1:-The above graph is a study conducted in year 2009 showing the low income rate among various countries using MBM. Fig 2:-The above graph shows the income gap between the rich and the poorest groups in Canada over the past 10 years. The effective policies brought in by the Canadian government to reduce inequality in Canada are changes in wages and salaries distribution. The changes are as follows: Changes in work environment, part-time working opportunities, self-employed and non-standard labor contracts and an increase in division of work hours. Technological changes with the benefits of technical progress among the high-skilled. Regulatory policies targeted at promoting growth and productivity, which enhanced both employment and income inequality. Re-distribution through taxes and benefits in mitigating income inequality within all countries. Tax provisions being reviewed on top-income households to ensure the tax system is progressive and fair. Better education facilities for certain groups in Canada, certainly among Aboriginals. This is a major issue of concern requiring more efficient policy action. REFERENCES 1. http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/hot-topics/caninequality.aspx 2. http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2013/09/26/growth_of_inequality_in_canada _cannot_be_denied.html 3. http://www.mqup.ca/social-inequality-in-canada-products-9780886292799.php 4. http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/403/HUMA/Reports/RP4770921/humarp07 /humarp07-e.pdf 5. http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/594ENG.pdf 6. http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/403/HUMA/Reports/RP4770921/humarp07 /humarp07-e.pdf 7. http://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/rise-canadas-richest-1 8. John Loxley, Public Service, Private Profits: The Political Economy of Public/Private Partnerships in Canada
Monday, August 19, 2019
In the book entitled Canada, NATO and The Bomb: The Western Alliance in Crisis by Tom Keating and Larry Pratt the main issue discussed was CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s position in Europe, North America and their view on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It went into specific issues dealing with political tension within Canada and tension outside Canada with other countries. It went through the years of different political parties and how they dealt with the matters of NATO. It states CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion dealing with matters such as the alliance, war, and decision making with other countries involved in NATO. The book came across CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making as though Canada went along with the decisions made by other countries. Canada, NATO, and The Bomb is not a book to inform it is a history book. It addressed issues that had happened previously and stated the type of involvement Canada had in it. In most cases, a book dealing with these sensitive issues, which involved other countries, would provide the pros and cons but in this case only the cons of NATO and the alliance were provided. This book showed NATO as being an organization that is very unorganized. It came across as though the countries involved did not respect each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and opinions. It dwells on the mistakes made by countries for example the United States, various other European countries. It made it seem as though NATO was in conflict within each other making the organization as a whole seem incapable of compromise and the defence of anything. At many points NATO wanted to vote the United States out of the organization but this obviously never happened. At one point it was a problem Ã¢â¬Å"about the possibility of being dominated and ultimately overwhelmed by too close an association with the United StatesÃ¢â¬ (pg.30) for Canada and their relationship. The themes of the book were Canada and its position in NATO and NATOÃ¢â¬â¢s and its position in the world. The theme was not presented clearly. One of the points were Canada and the main focus was any and everything but Canada. It stated over and over again that Canada did not approve of very much but that was it. It came across as if Canada was only complaining and nothing was being done. NATO and its position are expressed as only conflicts within the congress. It was giving history presentation information dealing with NATO, its purpose and its views on important topics.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"A good Man is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ The reason a good man is hard to find is because if ones standards are to high their goal is almost impossible to reach. The grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset was still in the past she falls into the old southern woman stereotype. The Southern woman wanted a religious, upstanding southern gentleman and in this day and age that type of individual is hard to find. The grandmother has a strong faith in god and it affects every aspect of her life. The misfit doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in god he believes that god through everything off balance by claming to raise the dead but no one can prove it so therefore he has no faith, this totally contradicts the grandmothers beliefs. What I drew from the statement Ã¢â¬Å"somebody there to shoot her every minute of her lifeÃ¢â¬ is that as soon as death was near, the old lady changed from a bitter old racist to an understanding and compassionate southern lady. This is a direct knock on southern life and how many older people in the south hide behind the faÃ §ade of religion and manners to disguise their racist and bitter ways. If someone had threatened her every minute of her life, then she could have been nice all the time, not just when it mattered. Poetry Paper The purpose of this project is to help you develop an appreciation of one author's ability to involve you in deep reading of literature. Write a 4-5 page paper on a short story or novel by a writer from the list below. (You may not choose a story we have discussed in class.) Pay careful attention to, and write in depth about, Ã · plot (don't simply retell the story) Ã · character development (what does the author do to make us care what happens to the main character) Ã · figurative language (how does the author's use irony, symbolism, etc. help create deeper levels of understanding of the theme the author is exploring) You are responsible for researching the writer/stories in at least two academic journal articles. You may not simply go out to the Internet for your sources, they will not be credited. You may also not simply provide a quote or two from the articles. You must demonstrate that you have read the articles in their entirety and how they have led to an understanding of the writer and/or the stories.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Incivility thrives through our modern society and into the classrooms and campuses of colleges. Incivility can automatically be thought of as the improper behavior or insulting other people based of race, looks, ect. However, incivility exists in classrooms where the professor experiences disrespect in multiple forms. Colleges obtain a policy towards incivility and proper conduct, however the importance of respect and civility in the actual classroom can be found to be left out. Civility should be a requirement for campuses to preserve courtesy and respect amongst both students and teachers. In particular, California State University San Marcos has a Standards of Student Contact that lists expectations to avoid situations such as cheating, being involved with drugs, lying to police authorities, ect. These policies revolve around acts that result in major punishment, and does not include civility issues of how students treat each other on campus, or more so the respect that should be maintained in a classroom. The importance of civility on campus and in classrooms should be magnified to create a comfortable, mature environment for students and faculty. Professors notice a trend in incivility among students including bullying, disrespect towards professors, and a lack of kindness. These factors are consistently ignored and are not given enough attention. Civility on campus is an unrecognized policy that needs to gain awareness. New college students enter their schools with an attitude of entering the real world of adulthood and independence. Unlike high school, college students go through the process of paying for tuition and other college fees to obtain their desired college degree. As a result of acknowledging their payments towards their classes, a loss of conduct can occur in classrooms. College has a reputation of more freedom when it comes to classrooms. College students know that the classes they go to are being paid for by themselves. Because of this students feel that their choices in college are their own responsibility. They are adults who need to tend for themselves. Although high schools and colleges share a commonality in terms of shaping oneÃ¢â¬â¢s future, college is its own level of obtaining education. Once a student begins his or her college career, a new world is unraveled. Many of these newcomers in college are not fully aware of the challenges that they are about to face, thus resulting to misfortunate outcomes that would affect them later on in their lives. There are many responsibilities that need tending once you are a college student. For one, the parental supervision that once existed has disappeared, and many simple tasks and duties that seemed unimportant became major responsibilities that require attention. Paying for the necessities that come with the lifestyle of being self-dependent is basically a college studentÃ¢â¬â¢s standard of living. Unlike high school, college students go through the process of paying for tuition and other college fees to obtain their desired college degree. With that said, they are often faced with the sacrifice of leaving class in order for them to go to work, which ultimately is their temporary solution of funding their tuition. Aside from the financial aspect of being a college student, it is also important to acknowledge the fact that they are fully fledged adults. Furthermore, they are under their own rule, thus whatever decision they decide upon affects their own lives, not the professor. Also, college has standards that are different to that of high schools. Students have the option of leaving whenever they please, because as mentioned earlier, they have many responsibilities that often force them to do so. Though many would concede of such reasons that explain the responsibilities that college students deal on a regular basis, it disregards the larger matter and that is the practice of becoming an adult and how to handle the life ahead of you. This, in fact, is the major weakness of this argument because it only focuses on the notion that is currently present. It neglects to mention that college is a template of adulthood, and that it is often hard to manage because its purpose is to shape you for the future challenges that you may face in life. It is basically set to difficult levels so that it would enable you to become accustomed of the adult lifestyle. Students can misinterpret the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"freedomÃ¢â¬ in college. Although college is a big step into the adult world versus high school, they may take advantage of that and bring disrespect to campus and the classroom. Maria Shine Stewart notes in her article Ã¢â¬Å"Cropping Out IncivilityÃ¢â¬ how unkindness and hate on campus can escalate to violence. Going into college, some students may feel like they can reform themselves and misuse their high confidence. Immaturity from high school can drag into college and cause bigger problems and even bullying. In high school petty arguments come up, but in college where everyone is expected to act like mature adults words can be taken very offensively and the outcome can be more serious. College is a place for students who want to grow educationally, not a place to be disturbed by those few people who bring interruptions and unnecessary drama. Civility on campus should be an important subject advertised to ensure a pleasant environment for the students to grow successfully. Going from high school to college is a big deal for incoming students. College has grown a reputation of a place to get educated with more freedom. In high school students are used to following strict rules of no cell phones, attendance, and proper behavior. Although college is a place for adults and allows more freedom than high school, a code of conduct has been twisted. Because students pay for college, they feel they have permission to handle the way they learn on their own terms. Leaving class for example is an idea brought to students that is Ã¢â¬Å"o. kÃ¢â¬ since what they learn or do not learn is on their own shoulders. However, students fail to realize that professors work hard to ensure their lectures and notes push their students in the right direction to succeed in their class. The whole point of a professors job is to educate their students so they can pass their class and move forward. Leaving during class is an unprincipled disturbance to the other students and professor. The professor gives students their time to drive to the campus and try to help educate their students, and leaving in the middle is disrespecting their efforts. Some professors are lenient and allow students to get away with small misbehaviors such as eating in class, texting, talking, and more. Students take their quiet disregards as permission to continue, not realizing the disturbance and disrespect they are giving their professor. Most high schools have a strict no cell phone code, and students entering college believe that cell phones are okay to be freely handled even in class. Even though some professors write in their syllabus Ã¢â¬Å"no cell phonesÃ¢â¬ , students still feel that texting under their desk will be okay with the teacher. Although some professors may look the other way, students fail to realize that professors know when students are occupied with something unrelated to the lecture. By being occupied by something separate from the actual class discourages the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s effort on trying to help their students succeed. Students do not recognize that the disrespect towards professors does effect them. Thomas Benton notes in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Remedial Civility TrainingÃ¢â¬ how he puts in effort to Ã¢â¬Å"make my classes interesting and relevantÃ¢â¬ only to have students disregard his class and only see it as an requirement. Civility should be enforced in the classroom to give that respect to professors and other students who are there to succeed in their education. Civility has become so flexible and twisted that the relationship between student and professor has transformed. Professors should be treated with respect, just as any educator feels they deserve to be treated as. However, some students find themselves able to mistreat their professors to an extent. In Marilyn GilroyÃ¢â¬â¢s journal article Ã¢â¬Å"Colleges Grappling with IncivilityÃ¢â¬ she maintains how Ã¢â¬Å"Faculty members have reported numerous confrontations with students over gradesÃ¢â¬ and mistreatment towards professors over grades can become threatening. Although Gilroy writes how a majority of faculty members do not experience threats over grades or a students performance, the fact that even a small percentage receive violent threats is disturbing. A separation between professor and student should be established to prevent such incivility in that relationship. A professor should not receive such extreme blame for a students performance, even if the professor is rightful to be blamed. A discussion would be appropriate rather than a hasty act of threats and accusations. Professors should be allowed the right to preserve the respect in the student-educator relationship. The relationship between the professor and student should be used towards promoting civility in the classroom. To prevent students feeling less involved and under complete authority of the professor, discussion and communication through the class room would produce civility. Mary Deane SorcinelliÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"Dealing with Troublesome Behavior In The ClassroomÃ¢â¬ suggests seeking feedback from students, or allowing classroom policies to be open for discussion amongst students. Sorcinelli claims that by giving the student a voice in the rules, appreciation will be given to the policies set by the professor. Compromise can create a more civil relationship for the students and professor. Incivility is amongst college campuses in multiple forms. Civility should be something strong and advertised on campus to ensure a comfortable learning environment is established. Students should not have to suffer through misdemeanor of other peers. Immaturity and bullying is something college students should not be dealing with when they put their time and money towards their education. Although incivility is for the most part under control on campuses, proper behavior in classrooms has been disregarded. Professors are expressing a concern over students actions during their class time. Students find that because they are paying for college, they have more freedom. Although freedom is given, a certain conduct should be kept within the classroom. Paying attention, being prepared, and attendance should be something students can handle on their own. However, professors notice a lack of civility within their own classroom. Civility should be a policy in colleges to ensure that professors and peers receive respectful treatment.
AUDITING I. Definitions * Auditing, in a general sense, is a systematic and critical evaluation of the financial position, operating systems, and results of operation of an audited entity. * A systematic process of obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events to ascertain degree of correspondence between those assertions and established criteria and communicating the results to interested user. The analytical and systematic examination and verification of financial transactions, operation, accounts, and reports of any government agency for the purpose of determining the accuracy, integrity, and authenticity, and satisfying the requirements of law, rules, and regulations. State audit relies on the provisions of law; its authority and limitations are prescribed by law and it is conducted in accordance with law. The 1987 Constitution and related laws set the scope, powers, functions, and jurisdiction of government auditing. Auditing in Public AdministrationState auditing (along with accounting) may be considered as the control and accountability component of fiscal administration cycle. * As a control mechanism, auditing ensures the proper and legal utilization and management of fiscal resources in accordance with sound financial management principles, accounting and auditing standards, and applicable laws and regulations. * As an accountability component, it seeks to ensure that public officials entrusted with functions and resources are made responsible for the performance and results of operation of their office. In the Fiscal administration cycle, auditing also provides inputs to the next phase which is planning. Audit reports contain vital information on the results of operation of agencies and recommendations to improve their performance. Auditing and Accounting Accounting * Accounting is a discipline which provides financial and other information essential to the efficient conduct and evaluation of the activities of an organization. Is concerned with constructing from a mass of transactions entered into by a firm or agency during a certain period, financial statements, results of transactions (in terms of profit and loss), and current financial position, through the interpretation, summarization, and compilation of information. Auditing * Is primarily concerned with analyzing whether or not the financial statements reasonably represent the result of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. II. TYPES OF AUDITING A. Timing Pre-audit Ã¢â¬â The auditor reviews a transaction (a contract for janitorial services, for example) even before such services are rendered. The auditor also gives his tentative approval for payment of the services by the agency. * Post-audit Ã¢â¬â The auditor reviews and approves the transaction after the services have been rendered and payment has been made In both cases, the review may consist of the following: * Determining whether all relevant laws, rules and regulations have been observed in the transaction. Physical inspection of supplies or equipment. * Checking whether all necessary documents are submitted and properly accomplished. * Determining whether the required authority or approval has been secured. * Checking mathematical accuracy. B. Organizational Status of Auditor * Internal Audit * The internal auditor undertakes an analytical view of balances disclosed in the financial statements to determine that the information contained in the statements is consistent internally, with budget accounts, and with those of prior years.He may also insist, in an advisory capacity, in adopting basic organizational regulations, preparing rationalization proposals, and recommending measures to improve the structural and procedural systems of the agency. * In small agencies, the internal audit is usually conducted by accounting or controller units * In large organization, it is done by a separate internal audit staff which reports directly to the head of agenc y, the finance office, or corporate board of directors, in the case of corporations. * External Audit * Is performed by auditor external to or independent of the audited organization. In the Philippine state audit context, it is the audit performed by the COA auditors. * In commercial audit, it is conducted by independent certified public accountants on private business organizations primarily to express an opinion on the fairness, consistency, and conformity of financial statements to generally accepted accounting principles, for submission to management, government regulatory agencies, stockholders, and other interested parties. Under the Constitution, external audit by the COA cannot be replaced by internal audit (or any private external audit).While an internal auditor may conduct audit of his agency (or private independent auditors perform external audit), only COA auditor is authorized to conduct government audit. External audit as performed by the COA Includes a comprehensive review of an agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal audit services, as part of its audit function of evaluating of agency internal control systems. C. Audit Scope * Fiscal Audit: Financial and Compliance Fiscal audit is the Ã¢â¬Å"traditional financial auditÃ¢â¬ in government. It is the combination of financial audit and compliance audits. Financial audit of government transactions is conducted to determine whether: Financial operations are conducted in accordance with applicable laws, rules and regulations, and accounting and auditing standards. * Whether an agency financial statement presents fairly and accurately the financial position of the agency in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The auditor determines whether the agency is maintaining effective control over revenues, expenditures, assets and liabilities, whether financial statements are fairly presented, and if financial reports contain accurate, reliable and useful information.Compliance audit, on the other hand, is an evaluation of the extent to which the agency has complied with pertinent laws, policies, and rules, and regulations in the conduct of its operation. The auditor tests the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial transactions and specific program, function or activity to determine their legality or regularity. He may for instance; check whether the agency has not violated pertinent law in incurring significant unrecorded liabilities. * Performance Audit: Efficiency, Economy, EffectivenessA performance audit is a constructive examination and evaluation of the financial and operational performance of an organization, program, function or activity with the object of identifying opportunities for grater economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in agency. Economy and efficiency audits determine: * Whether the agency is managing and utilizing its resources (personnel, property, funds) economically and efficiently * The causes of inefficiencies or uneconomical practices * Whether the agency has complied with the laws and regulations concerning matters of efficiency and economyEffectiveness or Ã¢â¬Å"program resultsÃ¢â¬ audit determines. * Whether the desired results or benefits established by the legislature or other * Whether the agency has considered alternatives that might lead to desired results at lower cost Special/Other Audits * Subsidy Audit (in the Constitution, PD1445) * Levy Audit (in the Constitution, PD1445) III. THE AUDIT PROCESS A. The Audit Cycle Ã¢â¬â The state audit cycle consist of seven phases: * Phase I. Preliminary survey of the agency or audited entity The preliminary survey is conducted to acquire a working knowledge of the audited agency and its legal, policy, and administrative environment.The auditor gathers general background information on the agency and its operations after which he defines the scopes of his audit. The auditor may perform the following activities: * Interviews with agency officials to obtain general information * Obtain basic documents on agency activities, objectives, policies, standards, procedure, etc. * Physical inspection of agency facilities, office, etc. Ideally, the survey should provide information on: * Laws, policies, and rules, and regulations applicable to the agency * Brief history and goals or purpose of the agency Agency organization, functions, staff, regional offices, and operating systems * Nature, investments and location of agency assets * General objectives and policies * Operating methods and standards used in measuring or evaluating agency operations and performance * Description of major, existing problems * Copies of internal agency reports, especially internal audit reports * Phase II. Review of Legal and Policy Framework The information gathered from the preliminary survey are reviewed in order to obtain a general knowledge of the legislation and policies applicable to agency objectives, policies, programs, and operating standards. Phases III. Review and Evaluation of In ternal Control System In this phase, the auditor reviews the procedures and practices actually applied by the agency in processing its transactions in order to establish: * The actual means and methods in carrying out operations * Appropriateness and utility of various steps in the processes * The results of operations or transactions relative to agency objectives, legal and policy requirements, and standards * The effectiveness of the internal control system and its various componentsThe review and evaluation of the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal control system is to: * Identify major critical areas that would warrant more detailed examination * To determine the type of test to be used in the closer examination of such areas later on * Phase IV Ã¢â¬â In-depth Examination of Problem Areas, Data-gatherings, Analysis, and Evaluation In this phase, the auditor concentrates on audit findings on the problem areas in terms of: * Compliance with or adherence to legal and policy mandate, presc riptions, and requirements; * Goals and objectives-achievement Operational efficiency, economy, and effectiveness in the use of human, material, and financial resources; and * Propriety, accuracy, reliability, and usefulness of financial records and reports, including the effectiveness of control over the latter In-depth examination may involve reviewing agency reports, books, files, records, and such other relevant documents and analyzing, evaluating, verifying and confirming their content through enquiries, inspection, or observation.Where it becomes impossible or impractical to examine all operations and transactions, the auditor conducts reviews and tests on a selective basis, based on his professional judgment and on the adequacy of internal control systems. The auditor develops the factual and documentary evidence to support his audit findings, conclusions, and recommendations. He analyzes the data gathered and determines the causes and effects of the problems, and their signi ficance to agency operations. He also determines whether the agency needs to take corrective action and recommend the appropriate solutions.The auditor must alert agency officials on any deficiencies discovered during audit to enable management to take immediate corrective action. * Phase V. Preparation and Presentation of Draft Report A draft audit report is prepared based on the findings and recommendations formulated in the previous phase. The report is then presented to agency officials for their review and comments. * Phase VI. Finalization of Audit Report After the meeting, the auditor finalizes the audit report.In writing the final report, he has to observe certain principles or standards of report writing. The scope of the audit should be stated clearly and concisely in the report and any limitations should be explicitly mentioned Findings and conclusions should be adequately supported by factual documentary evidence. The recommendations should be clearly identified and shou ld be realistic. Previous audit recommendations which have been unimplemented and the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s reason for such should also be noted. * Phase VII. Follow-up on the Implementation of Audit RecommendationsAudit recommendations, such as suggested improvements, proposed adjustments in the accounts, correction or discontinuance of malpractices, solution to existing problems, etc. should be followed-up B. General Objectives, Principles and Standards * General Objectives There are many objectives of state audit and all these relate to the concept of public accountability. Public accountability is central to government audit as it is anchored on the tenet that public officials, as stewards of public office must give a full and public accounting of the manner with which they utilize the powers and expend the resources entrusted to them. Establishing accountability for financial material and human resources of an agency * Establishing accountability for compliance with applicable laws. Policies, rules and regulations * The efficient, economical and effective operations of the agency * Specific Objectives The specific objectives of state auditing also include the following, as enunciated in the Lima Declaration of Guidelines on Auditing Precepts * Proper and effective use of public funds * Development of sound financial management Orderly execution of administrative activities * Communication of information to public authorities and the public through publication of audit reports * Audit Principles and Standards * Audit principles and standards serve to guide the auditor in conducting his audit with integrity, objectivity, independence, and efficiency * Audit standards deal with the quality with which the audit is performed based on the professional and ethical qualifications of the auditor and his exercise of judgment in the course of audit.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Essay Rough Draft COM/155 March 24, 2013 Essay Rough Draft Today, everybody wants to lose weight and look better, but there are safe ways such as diet and exercise, and other ways such as high potency diet pills and gastric bypass surgery. I bring this up because I have witnessed firsthand what the difference in the weight loss methods has done to people. Some were my friends, and some were my family. Anybody who wants to lose some weight, could benefit from this essay, and possibly keep from making a bad or possibly even fatal decision.People need to know what they are getting themselves into if they take over-the-counter weight loss supplements. Dieters need to know things about weight loss supplements that the nutrition centers donÃ¢â¬â¢t want them to know. Diet and exercise are the only way to safely lose excess weight, and if truly committed to it, people will find an amazing sense of pride and accomplishment fallowing each workout. Taking a prescription for a weight loss pill is a much safer route than going to your local drugstore and getting one that no one knows anything about.Working with a doctor or physician who knows the person and their weight loss needs is the safest way. Even with FDA (food and drug administration) approval, the long term effects of these pills are unknown. This is really an option only looked at for those considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"obeseÃ¢â¬ and with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater. It is also called upon when the BMI is 35 or greater and someone has a life threatening disease such as type II diabetes, and cannot manage their weight on their own. These pills are usually amphetamine-based and are therefore addictive.They are only meant to be used for a short period of time. If you have any history of addiction in your family or carry any addictive traits, a person should consult their physician before taking these pills. Side effects include, but are not limited to, high blood pressure, dry mouth, constipation, and in somnia. Surgery, such as Gastric Bypass surgery, has its pros and cons as well, but is a safer alternative to taking pills. In this surgery, a person is cut open in one of two ways. One way is to make a large cut in the stomach area big enough to open up and work inside.The other is to use todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology to go in through a small incision and use cameras to perform the procedure. What is taking place here, is most of the stomach is being eliminated, and tied directly into the midway point of the small intestine. The size of the stomach is reduced to about the size of an egg. The egg-sized stomach, combined with bypassing the portion of the small intestine that pulls all of the nutrients from the food eaten to fuel your body, are in turn going to cut weight. It will take much less food to feel full. This is a good procedure for those considered to be obese, or morbidly obese.It has positive effects in that a person will lose the weight they are looking to lose. Some of the negative side effects are that people often have to watch their vitamin and nutrient levels closely because they are no longer allowing the small intestine to pull them from the food that is ingested. Even after all of the weight loss, one will still have to figure out what to do with the extra skin that is now hanging from the body. This will inevitably call for another surgery. I have a friend who went through this and said that he was happier with himself when he was overweight and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the extra skin to deal with.The only 100% safe way to lose weight and live a better life is to maintain a healthy diet and exercise program. I have been a person who could eat whatever I wanted at any time I wanted to. I would even have bets with people as to just how much food I could eat. That is all starting to change with my age. As I get older I find it harder to keep my body in shape. What used to be simply waking up and doing whatever it was that I wanted to do, would turn int o having to pay more attention to what I eat, and exercise on a regular basis.This is not something that was comfortable to me to do. I used to think that just doing my high intensity job was going to keep me lean. This is the common misconception of a high number of dieters today. A healthy life starts with examining what it is that is put into the body daily. A good way to start is to give up the simple Ã¢â¬Å"pleasuresÃ¢â¬ such as soda, candy, junk food, and fast food. Replace these things with a packed lunch including a peanut butter and jelly sandwich and a bottle of water. I began doing a workout program at home, and made a commitment to make myself better.I told close friends about what I was doing so that I had support, and as it turns out, they wanted in on the healthy lifestyle. There is no better motivator than knowing someone is counting on me being there to work out with them. I have often thought of taking the easy way out and turning to pills and surgery, but then think of the negative effects and consequences, and am turned back to the safe, healthy way. In conclusion, I want people to know that not only can they do whatever they want for their health and wellness, but also be the very thing that someone else needs to see in order to make the commitment to change their lives.Now knowing what some of the pros and cons of diet pills and surgery are, and the simple steps necessary to work a healthy diet and exercise into life, people can make a better, more informed choice. What are you going to do for yourself today? What are you going to show someone else? References 3fatchicks. com. (2008). Retrieved from http://www. 3fatchick. com/5-dangers-of-diet-pills/ WebMD. (2005-2013). Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass. Retrieved from http://www. webmd. com/diet/weight-loss-surgery/gastric-bypass
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The debate on television violence has been on going for many years now and has produced a wide and varied set of views and research results. Many well established psychologists have attempted, through various types of experiments and observations, to either support or negate a link between violence on television and the violent episodes in Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ life. These sets of data have thrown up some interesting views and personal conclusions regarding the subject of television violence, and we will show the varying views and conclusions that some of these psychologists have reached; and by using a respected and well known system we will try to show the views of a small section of our community. Previous research into the link between violence and television Over the years numerous psychologists have produced thousands of experiments and or research to support or negate the link between violence and television. In 1987 a psychologist named Cumberbatch produced data on the actual amounts of violence found to be in British television programmes. He concluded that 30% of the programmes contained some form of violence, with an overall frequency of 1. 14 violent acts per programme and 1. 68 violent acts per hour. Each act of violence lasted an average 25 seconds leading to violence occupying just over 1% of total television airtime. His research showed that in 26% of violent acts death occurred, but in 61% no injuries were shown and the victim was portrayed as being in pain or stunned. In 83% of cases, no blood was shown as a result of a violent act, and considerable blood and gore occurred in only 0. 2% of cases. Cumberbatch also revealed that most perpetrators of violent acts were more likely to be portrayed as Ã¢â¬Å"baddiesÃ¢â¬ rather than Ã¢â¬Å"goodiesÃ¢â¬ , and violence occurred twice as frequently in law breaking than in law-upholding contexts. His research, although neither for or against violence on television, gives us an idea of the amount of violence on television we are exposed to. Howitt and Cumberbatch in 1974 analysed 300 studies of television violence and itÃ¢â¬â¢s direct effect on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, they played down the link between television violence and the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. A further study into the relationships between the media and violence carried out by Eron 1987and Phillips 1986 found a different conclusion. They concluded that a positive correlation between the amount of aggression viewed at 8 and later aggression at 30 could be seen. George Gerbner (1989) researched television and its influences on human behaviour and said: Ã¢â¬ Television influences human behaviour because there are Ã¢â¬Å"routesÃ¢â¬ or mechanisms whereby the content of television can have an effect on what we do, and how we act. Thus, part of televisions influence comes about because of how we learn (by observation and imitation), because of how we respond to certain kinds of story material (arousal/desensitisation), and because of the structure of our inhibitions and the way television provides the kind of stimulation necessary to release them (disinhibition). I called these behavioural mechanisms, because for the most part the influence was shown on some activityÃ¢â¬ (p128 The Psychology of Television) Aletha Huston (university of Kansas 1989) studied the effects of television violence on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and stated: Ã¢â¬ Children who watch violent television programmes, even Ã¢â¬Ëjust funnyÃ¢â¬â¢ cartoons, were more likely to hit out at their playmates, argue, disobey class rules, leave tasks unfinished, and were less willing to wait for things than those who watched the non violent programmes. Ã¢â¬Å"(p 142 The Psychology of Television) We can see from the varying studies, different results and opinions of these psychologists just how hard it can be to support or negate a link between violence on television and in real life. How the questionnaires were prepared in class In a classroom environment we produced a questionnaire on peoples opinions relating to the link between television violence and real life. The class split into small groups of three or four and discussed possible questions to add to the questionnaire, trying to have a balance of pro television and anti television questions. The individual group questions were discussed and eight questions picked to make up the actual questionnaire, these questions consisted of four pro television and four anti television, the questions were set out so an anti television was followed by a pro television question. The obvious reason for the split into pro and anti television is to try and produce a questionnaire that will give the people taking part a non-biased set of alternate answers.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
In the Shakespearean play Hamlet, the conflict between Hamlet and his mother, Gertrude, is parallel to the main conflict of the story. Hamlet is motivated to avenge by the ghost after he is upset when Gertrude marries Claudius. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s view of society, especially women, is also shaped by his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions, thus developing his character; Hamlets character is shown as indecisive when he decides to confront his mother. As the play starts, Hamlet is disappointed with his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to Claudius.He expresses his disagreement by complaining about Gertrude marrying Claudius within two month of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. In act one of the play, Hamlet says, Ã¢â¬Å"O most wicked speed, to post with such dexterity to incestuous sheets! It is not nor it cannot come to good, But break, my heart, for I must hold my tongueÃ¢â¬ (1. 2. 156-8). Here Hamlet reveals his discomfort with his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship which leads to his wanting to get revenge. But at that point, the Ghost of King Hamlet appears to give him an ultimate purpose of avenging his death.Through the play, Hamlet works toward accomplishing that goal driven by discomfort toward GertrudeÃ¢â¬â¢s relation with Claudius. Hamlet makes social comment about women that are negative in nature. He usually makes those comments to Ophelia, for example when he tells her to go to the Ã¢â¬Å"nunneryÃ¢â¬ . These comments however are fueled by his anger toward his mother. At the beginning of the play he sees Ophelia as a pure woman, but his view changes over time. This is a reflection of his view toward his mother as apparent by HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s remark about his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Claudius.At first Hamlet is not sure about why his mother married Claudius, but he quickly decides that the decision his mother made was based on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s weak mind. The weakness of women is a social bias of Shakespearean plays. Hamlet decides that he is not going to confront his mother at the beginning of the play, after he sees Claudius feeling guilty about his murder; Hamlet chooses to confront his mother and tell her the truth because he trusts her. Even then his mother does not believe him and thinks he is crazy. This shows that Gertrude is not on HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s side but on ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s side.This fuels HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s anger toward Claudius even more. Also Hamlets change in mind to trust his mother shows his indecisive character, which develops through the play. The relationship between Gertrude and Hamlet is never made completely clear during the play. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s dislike of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Claudius is very clear however. While Hamlet is motivated to avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death by GertrudeÃ¢â¬â¢s action, he is uncertain about whether it his completely his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s fault as seen by him trusting his mother.
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Skype and its impact on Social and Culture Environment - Term Paper Example Importance of Skype and its Impact on PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Lives Skype has been significant in the lifestyles of the modern society. The most important aspect has been lowering the cost of telephone services. Subscribers of Skype are able to communicate effectively through unlimited phone calls, which is not possible through the common telephone service providers. Moreover, Skype services are accessible globally and therefore every person who has access to the internet can use them (Booth, 16). The current wave of globalization has necessitated effective communication among business people, workers and their families as well as among organizations with mobile workers. Greenhow observes that Skype services have enabled many people working away from home to accomplish work-life balance by means of video conferencing (11). The common mobile telephony only allows voice calls, but workers and their relations appreciate visual communication whereby they are able to see the person whom they are communicating with. Under such circumstances, expatriate workers overseas are able to see their families through video chats. This is significance in the enhancement of satisfaction in employment and avoidance of family breakdown as a result of distance work. Video conferencing has also enhanced business and inter-organizational partnerships by enhancing networking capabilities. The cost of travel and conference rooms has been eliminated by Skype. Moreover, it helps in saving time in the p reparations for conferences (Turban et al. 19). In making purchases online, a person is in a position to see the partner whom he/she is communicating with thereby avoiding chances of falling in to the trap of fraudsters. For example, the recent rise in fraudulent transactions involving the sale of used motor vehicles by fake dealers through their short-lived websites could have been avoided if buyers insisted on visual conversations through Skype. This would enable them to request an image of the company premises and the cars before concluding a deal. On the other hand, the fear of fraudster companies in the internet has led to a decline of consumers willing to buy products online (Booth, 13). Skype can be applied by marketers to express their genuineness to potential online customers. Its application offers the opportunity to present a positive image by showing customers their marketing team, management and physical location. In deed, as Kuriyan & Ray (95) assert, Skype is the way to go in future online shopping. In healthcare, Skype has contributed to numerous positive changes with regard to communication between doctors and patients. Doctors, just like other professionals have been using Skype to communicate with families and friends. However, new developments have changed the manner in which they relate with patients. With increased cost of hospitalized healthcare, doctors have established a new strategy of home based care through Skype. Routine medical checks for patients have been facilitated by Skype video calls to patients in the comfort of their homes. Moreover, patients can interact with doctors for clinical consultations and other health related issues without physical presence in the hospital (Turban et al. 19). This has enabled doctors
Monday, August 12, 2019
Strategy, Information Systems (IS) and Knowledge Management - Essay Example However, it is crucial to understand why competitive advantage is of significant value. The paramount reason is that it allows a business to hold a superior status in the market. Having a dominant position implies that a business can have cost leadership, where it dictates the prices of products by partnering with suppliers in a monopoly-like manner. This is not sustainable over the long run; subsequently, business must create unique value around their products to draw out the largest market share. Hence there arises two ways of gaining competitive advantage, through cost or through differentiation. Either way, a business should seek this as it allows creation of profits that exceed their competitors. These excess profits in turn, can be used to further market the business by promoting its products and services, and boosting its image. In addition, the business can set aside money for continual assessment of its strategies, which involves research that ensures it is always up-to-date with trends within the industry (Worth, 2009). One of the core competencies that all businesses have or can easily acquire is information. Businesses need to create an environment that allows for dynamic use of information, to maintain high levels of performance, continuous growth and facilitate approaching of beneficial risks. To achieve these results from information effectively, there needs to be a shift in thinking from the traditional perspective to a dynamic one. Organizations need to think about information in three different ways, in order to leverage information systems to gain competitive advantage. These are recognizing the various sources of information within a business, acknowledging the purposefulness of a well-informed business solution and going over the overall IT situation to ensure it supports the business needs as and when they occur (Hurwitz and Kaufman, 2007). Recognizing the various sources of information involves looking at non-traditional sources of inform ation, in the sense of original point. That is, managers should seek information from emails, custom applications and reports as opposed to conventional sources such as content management systems e.g. ERM and customer databases. Of significance with this aspect is that quality of information will be high, and decision-makers can make timely decisions as they will recognize this information and act on it prudently. Managers should not ignore these sources as gaining competitive advantage necessitates leveraging all kinds of relevant information, as this will enable establishment of sustainable strategies (Hurwitz and Kaufman, 2007). Acknowledging purposefulness of a well-informed business solution is reliant on the infrastructure currently adopted by business. This means that a business solution will have a certain modularity and level of flexibility depending on the structures and systems in place. Modularity and flexibility implies that linkages between rigid information systems an d structures, and applications can be adjusted to meet the changing needs of a business as dictated by the environment. An effective business solution should unify the metadata such that for instance; characteristics that describe how to locate, access and utilize data will be maintained. Essentially, all relevant informat
Music Appreciation Critique #2 - Essay Example The nineteenth century focused more on update in the new century where they wanted music to be changed while focusing on the modern styles and forgetting the old styles of music. This is the point where classical music was considered to be an all time favorite in music history. One particular effective strategy, for example, was continually conjuring up fears about new forms of popular music, above all the amorphous category of jazz. In one critique of popular music, jazz music was highly appreciated (Alexander, 2009). Amadeus Mozart is one of the greatest classical musicians who ever lived. His music happens to be among the finest forms of music to date. Classical music is one of the best types of music that nature has ever had and people have decided to appreciate it in all the possible acts. One of the aims of classical music is to promote the culture of a certain people who live within their surroundings. According to Webster, classical music can be categorized according to the impacts that it makes on the lives of their listeners. Transformation n the world of music can be defined as a process, act or instance of which a genre of music is being played (Goulding, 1995). This was a Latin word that was used in music which refers to the diatonic semitone of the Pythagorean scale. It was also a term that was used in the acapella type of music by Mozart in the 19th century. Instruction in music appreciation went on to build definitions of popular and classical music upon contemporary constructions of race, class and gender, both reflecting and enhancing common stereotypes and prejudices (Dearling) In treating race, class, gender as interrelated, the study on music critiques further expands upon early studies of cultural hierarchy that focused on socioeconomic class and builds upon the work the work of many musicologists that have explored the social construction of music through race and gender. This is a type of musical poem that is
Sunday, August 11, 2019
International Business Economics - Essay Example Thus, economic growth can be measured in nominal terms by taking into concern the factors like inflation and other economic indicators (Barro & Sala-i-Martin, 2004). Economic growth is usually calculated in real terms to eliminate the changing effect of inflation on the price of total goods produced. Whenever, one examines the modern economy and traditional development, the process of growth in an economy can also be identified at large. Identifiably, traditional economists have attempted to develop certain theories based on which the economic growth can be examined. This can be substantiated with reference to the fact that without the support of agriculture, industrialisation economic revolution cannot be made possible. The percent rate of increase in real Gross Domestic Product or GDP is measured as economic growth. The growth ratio of GDP is therefore called as per capita income. GDP growth indicates the increase rate in inputs such as capital, population or territory, which is known as extensive growth. On the other hand, an increase in growth caused by more efficient use of inputs is referred as intensive growth (Tahvonen, 2000). Based on the study of economics, one of the issues relating to international business economics i.e. Ã¢â¬Å"Economic GrowthÃ¢â¬ typically refers to the growth of probable outputs like production at full employment in every field. Economic growth is generally eminent from the development in the sphere of economics. Meanwhile, economic growth is measured as the annual percent of GDP. Justifiably, GDP measures the market economy, which tends to exaggerate growth during the change from farming economy to household production. It is worth mentioning that the study of macro economics has a strong interrelation with economic growth, as it is fundamentally based on growth of agriculture and industrial production among others (Barro & Sala-i-Martin,
Saturday, August 10, 2019
European Union Single Currency Policy - Essay Example This paper illustrates that the European Ã¢â¬Å"dollar hegemony, thawed out frozen masses of immobilized capital, increased the volume and value of international trade, and opened and expanded markets on a vast scale. It created pressures that, if not irresistible, at least required better and more tenacious defenses, opened horizons beyond anything previously imaginable, yet also posed new regulatory challengesÃ¢â¬ . There are many advantages and disadvantages in implementing a change of work, place, policy, statute, condition or environment. There are successes, failures, and depression brought about by the fluctuations in a currency's market price. The following paragraphs explain the nuances of the single currency European Union economy and other related topics which are pegged on the European Union Dollar. European Union single currency policy is beneficial to its member countries. The potential benefits, as well as expenditures of the single European Monetary Unit, had been d iscussed at length in the European Commissions study entitled One Market, One Money. This report gave four major benefits that the single currency would bring to European Union member countries. The first benefit is the reduction in transaction costs. The second benefit is the reduction in risk. The third benefit would be the increase in competition. The last benefit would be the emergence of an international currency to compete on equal footing with the United States dollar. The first benefit is the reduction in transaction costs. The reduction of the transaction costs is connected with the decrease in the need to exchange the currency when one European Union Country like the United Kingdom would have to endure when buying a car from Germany, another European Union member state. Some of the members of the European Union include Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Denmark, United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Belgium, Luxemburg, France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Romania , Bulgaria, Poland and Slovenia.
Friday, August 9, 2019
Economic Role in Shaping Actions by the Government in 1930-1980 - Essay Example The economic history of this period of 1930 to 1980 will be testimony to this fact. The depression set in 1930s created challenging tasks for the government to undertake in order to find solution of the problem concerning economy and finance. Roosevelt was elected president in 1932 and he followed the principle propounded by Keynes, the British economist who believed that deficit spending during recessions and depressions could revive national economies. His theories became the basis of Roosevelt's New Deal approach. During first hundred days Congress and Roosevelt established many New Deal agencies, including CCC, FERA, CWA, AAA, TVA, and PWA to deal with the crisis.. In 1934 Congress created Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) The president; immediately set to work creating New Deal policies to end Great Depression.In1933 immediately after taking the oath of office, He set out to provide relief, recovery, and reform in his programs known as the New Deal. In 1933 Roosevelt declared a five-day national bank holiday to close banks temporarily with the hope that a short break would give the surviving banks time to reopen with strong new breathe.. Congress also passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act, which gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange. Congress passed the Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act to protect savings deposits. The act created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which insured an individual's savings of up to $5,000. The act was aimed to regulate lending policies and did not allow banks for investing in the stock market.Congress created the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), with a view to hire unemployed young men to work on environmental conservation projects throughout the country. Young and unemployed young men worked for small wage of thirty dollars a month, on projects in flood control and reforestation projects, national parks, and built many public roads. A lmost 3 million people worked in CCC camps. The program exited for 9 years during the crisis period to solve the problem of unemployment.Congress also created the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), to dole out roughly $500 million to the states. Half of this money was meant to bail out bankrupt state and local governments. The other half was distributed to people directly. FERA also created the Civil Works Administration (CWA) that helped generate temporary labor for others in need. The Social Security Act in 1935 was passed to help promote growth in employment. This law provided payments as "unemployment compensation" to workers who lost their jobs. The Act gave public aid to the aged, the needy, the handicapped, and to certain minors. These programs were financed by a 2 percent tax, one half of which was subtracted directly from an employee's paycheck and one half collected from employers on the employee's behalf. The tax was levied on the first $3,000 of the employee 's salary or wage. The government encouraged the creation of the Agricultural Adjustment
Thursday, August 8, 2019
Help me make a topic - Essay Example However, the term globalization gained prominence during the mid-1980s, and more so, after the 1990s. Scholars denote that innovation plays an important role in ensuring the development of globalization. They argue that innovations in telecommunications and information technology have led to the reduction of international and national transactions. Because of these reductions, opportunities in manufacturing have increased, especially so in remote areas (Rivoli, 31). This is because it is easy to communicate with various players within the manufacturing industry, at whatever location they are. Effective communication is an important element of the manufacturing process. Another important factor that has led to globalization is the various changes in the governance structure of the various national countries. These countries have opened up their economies, leading to free flow of goods, resulting to commerce. There are four basic elements of globalization, namely transactions and trade, migration of people and their movements, capital movement and investments, and dissemination of knowledge (Caporaso and Mary, 33). Basing on this background, this paper analyzes the globalization of coffee in its early stages of globalization. That is the periods of 1960s and 1970s. Coffee was introduced in African, Asia and some parts of America by the colonialists. During this period, colonial governments grew the product in their colonies for purposes of satisfying their domestic markets. For example, the British introduced coffee in the colonies of East Africa, and some countries of West Africa. They grew this product, and after harvesting, they took the coffee beans to Britain for processing and consumption. When they left, their colonies began to produce the substance for export, and as a means of earning foreign exchange (Peyser and Bill, 42). For instance in Kenya, the government that took over
Wednesday, August 7, 2019
Did the history of the People's Republic after the 1949 fulfil or depart from Mao's promises before 1949 - Essay Example This further resumed the civil war in China, after which the war restarted only in 1946, a year after the conflict with Japan. The war ceased in 1950, and the Republic of China was under the jurisdiction of the islands of Taiwan, Quemoy, Penghu as well as several other outlying areas. Mao Zedong was commonly regarded as Chairman Mao, who was a Chinese communist, revolutionary and a political theorist. He is known as the father of PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China since its foundation in 1949. He ruled the nation as the chairman of the Communist Party of China until his death. Here the topic under discussion is the changes that were brought about in China during MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s period, after the Chinese revolution of 1949. There existed some inequalities in PRC due to the dissimilarities between the Mao period and the reform eras. To know the underlying nature of the Chinese society, one needs to understand ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s transition into the present era after MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s period. This ch ange was brought in its due effect after the era of Mao. Analysis: The changes that took place during MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s rule were based on the economy of China. There was the involvement of foreign capital in China from economic zones such as southern and eastern coasts. There was a connection of the part of China in terms of family and cultural relationships to other countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore. During this time, the economy of Asia was growing fast and starting to play a more important role all over the world. This was one of the advantages of China; this led to the economic reforms in the country. China took its steps for development through various fields such as agriculture in the private sector, independence in the non-state sector in industry, transport and construction, which was in crisis during the USSR times. There arose some problems in the economy. Ã¢â¬Å"There has been a tendency for cycles of economic boom followed by centrally Ã¢â¬â induced restraint , but these have not called the whole project into questionÃ¢â¬ (Bowles et al. 70). Even if there were problems in China, there developed some reform programs such as agricultural reforms in 1978, the industrial, commercial and urban reforms in 1984 and again the coastal strategy reforms in 1978. Some legal facilities were provided in order to surpass all the rights and duties when the economic policies were being developed in China. It was the situation of flexibility in the rules rather than the communist regime. In MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s rule there were limitations to implement rules and regulations over the labourers in the aspects of wage rates, trade unions and working conditions. This raised market oriented businesses in the economy, and the Cultural Revolution resulted in the independence of China from other foreign countries. The banks in China followed liberalization, and authoritarianism was not acceptable anymore in the Chinese society. In this era, discontent with socialism ha d started to grow. Chinese economy survived after the Cultural Revolution of 1966 by the implementation of Five Year Plan; however, this revolution overwhelmed the political system of China, and as a result, chaos spread. Ã¢â¬Å"Two years after the Cultural Revolution ended in October 1976, the principal survivor of that cataclysm, onetime CCP general Secretary Deng Xiaoping, initiated
Tuesday, August 6, 2019
Supply Chain Management and Lean Production Essay Abstract The system of interconnected businesses used to push a product from supplier to consumer is defined as a supply chain. Supply chain management focuses on managing the supply chain in an effort to improve the quality and time it requires to manufacture a product. In addition to implementing supply chain management, a helpful lean production practice called Just-in-time can be used to remove any waste present along the supply chain. The marriage of lean production and supply chain management creates lean supply chain management, which provides a much leaner and more economical supply chain for the product to flow through. Supply Chain Management and Lean Production Much uncertainty about what supply chain management entails is present in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Many people treat supply chain management as being synonymous with logistics, which is the management of the flow of goods from the origin to the consumers However, supply chain management encompasses much more than the purchasing or management of goods to the consumer. Supply chain management (SCM), as defined by Lambert (2008), is the management of relationships across the supply chain, which includes a network of interconnected businesses involved in providing a product or service to the consumer. The management of the relationships between businesses on the supply chain is significant to ensure successful and efficient processes are used in providing products and goods to the customer. Definition of Supply Chain Management (SCM) What is a supply chain? A supply chain is defined as a system of organizations, as well as people and information, which are directly involved with the manufacture and delivery of a product (Phelps, Smith, Hoenes, 2004; Ã¢â¬Å"Supply Chain,Ã¢â¬ 2008). The supply chain includes the transformation of raw materials at the site of the supplier to finished goods that can be used by the consumer, as shown in Figure 1. The path the product travels is similar to that of a river. A river, when properly banked, is flowing in one direction towards a goal (Tompkins, 2000). Mark Twain stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Without banks the river is just a puddle. Ã¢â¬ A supply chain, like a river, needs communication and integration as its banks to create a force towards the destination, which is the consumer. Without the presence of the banks, the river would go nowhere and therefore be merely a puddle. Effective communication in business relationships that cross over different departments, as displayed by the arrows in Figure 1, is necessary to provide quality products to the consumer. What is supply chain management? Lambert (2004) defines supply chain management as Ã¢â¬Å"the integration of key business processes from the end user through original suppliers than provides products, services, and information that add value for customers and other stakeholders. Ã¢â¬ An illustration of supply chain management is displayed in Figure 2. This figure represents a basic supply chain network structure, as well as the flow of information and the product. The eight supply chain management processes, which integrate various tasks within the organization across the supply chain, can also be found in Figure 2 (Lambert, 2008). The implementation of the eight supply chain management processes is necessary to manage the relationships between various departments and tasks across the supply chain. Supply chain management is ultimately about the management of relationships within the network of businesses in the supply chain. Lambert (2008) expresses that the management of a supply chain is managed Ã¢â¬Å"link-by-link, relationship-by-relationship, and the organizations that manage these relationships best will win. Ã¢â¬ Role of Supply Chain Management (SCM) Overview of the role Supply chain management places attention along the entire supply chain, from raw materials at the supplier to finished goods in the hands of the customer. One role that supply chain management plays within a company is producing more efficient, quality products, which creates a competitive advantage among other companies. Today, management of the supply chain can be completed through the use of supply chain management software, such as E2Open. Supply chain management allows a company to document and track data pertaining to the supply chain. Benefits of the supply chain management Supply chain management places importance on managing the customer relationship, as well as the supplier relationship. By effectively managing these relationships, the company can become more competitive, while increasing the quality of the product to the customer. Placing emphasis on the supplier relationship and the businesses along the supply chain increases product efficiency and quality. The importance placed on the customer relationship focuses on the demands and needs of the customer. Through effective communication within the relationships along the supply chain, a basic balance of supply and demand is established.
Implementation and simulation of basic structure of the radio over fiber link CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Wireless communication has gone through enormous growth in the past ten years. Less than a percent of world population had access to cellular technology before early nineties, and by the start of this millennium approximately every one in a five people has a mobile phone. In the same period different countries across the globe have increase the mobile network technology over ninety percent and future forecast says that by the end of 2010 there will be more than 1700 million mobiles users across the world.  Apart from cellular technology WLANs has also seen phenomenal growth during the past ten years. These WLAN hotspots can be used in public places such as airports, cafes, hotels and restaurant etc. YEAR WLAN Frequency Modulation Bit-Rate (MAX) 1997 IEEE 802.11 2.4 GHz Frequency Hopping and Direct Spread Spectrum 2 Mbps 1998 ETSI Home RF 2.4 GHz Wideband Frequency Hopping 1.6 Mbps 1999 IEEE 802.11b 2.4 GHz Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 11 Mbps 1999 IEEE 802.11a 5 GHz OFDM 54 Mbps 2000 ETSI HiperLAN2 5 GHz OFDM Connection-Oriented 54 Mbps 2003 IEEE 802.11g 2.4 GHz OFDM compatible with 802.11a 54 Mbps Table 1.1 Evolutions of WLAN Standards  The rapid growth in wireless communication achieved more fame due the ease of installation as compared to the fixed network. The first generation (1G) mobile system were analogue, discovered in 1980s. The second generation (2G) known as global system for mobile communication (GSM) came on the scene in 1990s, which has been very successful and has achieved extreme success across the globe. GSM is currently the major mobile communication system which is used worldwide.  The graph above shows the relationship between coverage and capacity of communication systems. By looking at the graph the cell size of WPAN is of few meters but there transmission rate may go upto 10 Mbps. While considering 2G and 3G systems, there cell sizes may vary upto several kilometres but that are limited to less than 2Mbps. WiMAX technology can provide high bit rate mobile services using frequency span between 2 11 GHz.  FREQUENCY WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 2 GHz UMTS/ 3G Systems 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11 b/g WLAN 5 GHz IEEE 802.11 a WLAN 2-11 GHz IEEE 802.16 WiMAX 17/19 GHz Indoor Wireless (radio) LANs 28 GHz Fixed Wireless Access Local point to multi point (LMD) 38 GHz Fixed Wireless Access Picocellular 58 GHz Indoor Wireless LANs 57-64 GHz IEEE 802.15 WPAN 10-66 GHz IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Table 1.2 Frequencies for Wireless Communication Systems - 1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF WIRELESS NETWORK Wireless networks can be categorized into different groups depending on the area they are applied to. As a result high numbers of standards have been making to public for the development of new techniques in order to increase the spectrum efficiency and perfect utilization of spectrum, which is scarce natural resource. Wireless networks can be divided into three classes; 1.2.1 Wireless Private Area Network (WPAN) Devices of such networks can communicate in the range of tens of metres. Infrared (IR) and Bluetooth are the two implementation of this principle. 1.2.2 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) It is computer network that connects devices which are distributed over a local area (e.g office, house, mall, and airport). IEEE 802.11 which is commonly known as Wi-Fi, is an example of WLAN. 1.2.3 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) Such a network covers a geographic area such as city or village. IEEE 802.16 which is commonly known as WiMAX, is an example of WMAN. Depending upon the application, there are licensed and unlicensed frequency bands in which wireless systems can operate. 1.3 WIRELESS APPLICATIONS Now we will discuss wireless standards along with the overview of their applications: 1.3.1 Bluetooth WPAN Bluetooth is a radio standard, which operates in the unlicensed Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band at 2.4 2.485 GHz. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) is used in order to minimize interference and fading. In order to make the transceiver architecture as simple as possible, binary modulation is used. The bit rate is up to 3 Mb/s. The benefits of Bluetooth include low power consumption and low cost, therefore they are used in devices such as laptops, mobile phones and PDAs.  Power Class Maximum Output Power Minimum Output Power 1 100mW(20dBm) 1mW(0dBm) 2 2.5mW(4dBm) 0.25mW(-6dBm) 3 1mW(0dBm) Table 1.3 Bluetooth classes and power levels  1.3.2 Wi Fi WLAN The Wi-Fi alliance, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the European telecommunications standard Institute (ETSI) are the three organizations which influenced the standardization of WLAN. The IEEE WLAN standard is referred as 802.11. At the moment, the most used techniques are defined by the IEEE 802.11a, b and g standards.  Standard Release date Operating frequency Maximum Data Rate 802.11a 1999 5.15 5.35 GHz 5.725 5.825 GHz 54 Mbps 802.11b 1999 2.4 2.5 GHz 11 Mbps 802.11g 2003 2.4 2.5 GHz 54 Mbps Table 1.4 IEEE 802.11a, b and g standards  1.3.3 WiMAX WMAN WiMAX is an abbreviation for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. The WiMAX Forum is a non profit association. The aim and objective of the WiMAX technology is to provide fixed, portable or mobile connectivity to the users even if they located up to 6 miles away from base station and it is not necessary to be in line of sight. WiMAX can operate on any frequency below 66 GHz, as operating frequency may change for different countries depending on local regulation. It is possible replacement for mobile/cellular technologies such as GSM and CDMA. It has been considered to be the wireless backhaul technology for 2G, 3G and 4G networks. The limitations associated with WiMAX is that it can either provide high data rates or it can transmit data over longer distances but not both simultaneously.  1.3.4 Distributed Antenna Systems and Radio Over Fiber Distributed Antennas Systems (DAS) are used for several applications in the mobiles and wireless communications. It can be installing over indoor and outdoor sites. DAS can be implemented on those areas where there is lack of signals such as tunnels, underground stations etc. in order to extend the coverage of mobile network. Radio over fibre consists of remote unit and central unit. Remote unit is kept very simple since it only consists of devices for reception of radio frequency signals and optoelectronic conversion. All expensive and complex equipments are located at central unit and functions such as modulation and up/down conversion etc. are done. This resulted in increase in efficiency and maintenance cost because as compared to central units, remote units are numerically high in numbers and often remote units are located in sites that are not easy to get in touch with.  1.4 FLOW CHART OF THE DISSERTATION 1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of the dissertation is to implement and simulate the basic structure of the radio over fiber link using OFDM transceiver with the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The MATLAB version 7.8.0 (R2009a) is used for model implementation. Basically two models are designed: model number 1 consists of OFDM transceiver linked with a gain which represents the length of the fiber channel. Actually it is based on the theoretical fact that fiber has 0.2db loss per kilometre. For example 25km length fiber will be represented as 5 dB(-ve sign to show loss). Later on simulations are carried out by varying the length of fiber and results are deduced. Model 2 consist of OFDM transceiver as well but linked with laser diode model, fiber channel model and photodiode model as these are the fundamental components of RoF link. Some additional parameters of measuring the transmitted and received power and bit error rate calculation are also introduced to enhance the diversity of the project. 1.6 DISSERTATION OUTLINE The dissertation consists of six chapters: Chapter 1 is the introduction chapter in which wireless communication systems and wireless applications have been discussed briefly. Chapter 2 consist of the theory of radio over fiber which includes the need of RoF system, what RoF technology is, advantages and disadvantages of RoF system and applications of RoF technology. Chapter 3 purely consist of theory related to OFDM technology. Sub topics include in this chapter are principles of OFDM, history, advantages and disadvantages and applications of OFDM. Fourier transform is also discussed in this particular chapter. Chapter 4 consist of methodology of the dissertation. It consists of the models implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the brief study of the essential blocks used in the models. Chapter 5 is the chapter of simulations and results. Chapter 6 includes the conclusion and future work regarding radio over fiber and OFDM. CHAPTER 2: RADIO OVER FIBER 2.1 INTRODUCTION Radio-over-fiber (RoF) is a communication technology for delivering broadband applications to wireless users such as satellite communications, mobile-radio communications, broadband access radio, multipoint video distribution and broadband mobile services. RoF technologies make use of optical and radio communication media for providing above mentioned broadband services. The optical part is used to transmit microwave signals between a central radio base station and a remote radio antenna and on the other hand radio part provides coverage to wireless users. In RoF system radio frequency (RF) signal is transmitted through an optical network in an easier way by directly modulating the intensity of the light source with the RF signal to be transmitted and on the receiving end direct detection of the signal at photo detector. The modulating of the laser-diode light intensity with electrical signals at multiple frequencies causes a number of problems such as relative intensity, noise chirp and inter modulation distortion. The main sources of non-linearity in a system are the laser-diode light source, the optical fiber and the photo detector.  2.2 NEED FOR RADIO OVER FIBER SYSTEMS For the future prerequisite multimedia services and broadband over wireless media, some distinctive characteristics are needed such as cell size reduction in order to accommodate more users and to operate in the millimetre wave (mm-wave) frequency bands to overcome spectral clogging. Such a system would demands a large number of base stations to cover large geographical coverage area and base station should be cost effective as well, then only such a system would be successful in market. In such a competitive market, this necessity has led to the evolution of system architecture where microwave functions such as signal processing, signal routing, handover, modulation, protocols setting and frequency allocation etc. are performed at central control station (CS) rather than at remote station or base station (BS). This type of centralized arrangement allows complex, sensitive and expensive equipments to be positioned in safer environment and shared among several BSs or RSs (Remote Stati ons). Now the question arises how to link the central station (CS) with BS. In such type of radio network, the use of optical fiber is the most suitable choice for the linking of CS with BSs, as fiber is cheaper in cost, has low loss, immune to Electromagnetic Inter Modulation (EMI) and provides wider bandwidth. By keeping the BSs as simple as possible and by sharing the resources provided by CS among several BSs, can effectively minimizes the cost of entire network and thus maintenance cost. Modulation of RF sub carriers onto an optical carrier over an fiber is known as Radio over Fiber (RoF) technology. Typically RoF network consist of central CS, where functions like switching, routing, medium access control (MAC) and frequency management takes place whereas at BSs functions like optical to electrical and vice versa are performed.  2.3 RADIO OVER FIBER TECHNOLOGY Radio over fiber system consists of a Radio Base Station (RBS) and Radio Access Point (RAP) which are connected by an optical fiber link. Optical fiber link is used to distribute RF signals from a RBS to RAP. RAP only contains optoelectronic conversion devices and amplifiers. In GSM technology RBS could be referred as Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and RAP as Base Station (BS). The frequency used by the RoF systems usually lies under GHz region depending on the nature of application. Basically RoF systems were used to transmit microwave signals and to achieve mobility functions in RBS. Therefore modulated microwave signals had to be available at the input end of the system, which are then delivered to the RAP as optical signals. Signals at RAP are re-generated and radiated by antennas. Due to the advancement of technology, RoF systems are designed to perform added radio system functionalities other then transportation and mobility functions. The functions include are data modulation, signal processing and frequency conversion (up and down). The electrical signal at the input of the multifunctional RoF system may be baseband data, modulate IF or actual modulated RF signal for distribution. The modulated optical signal is carried over the optical fiber link to the remote station. At the receiving end, demodulation of the signal is carried out by the photo detector and the optical signal is converted back to electrical signal.   2.4 ADVANTAGES OF RADIO OVER FIBER 2.4.1 Low Attenuation It is observed that high frequency signals when transmitted in free space or through transmission lines are expensive and sometimes due to different reasons challenging as well. In free space, losses are directly proportional to frequency due to absorption and reflection. Increase in frequency also gives rise in impedance when signal is delivered through transmission line. Therefore in order to overcome these issues, expensive signal regenerating equipment is required to distribute radio signal electrically over long distances. The cheaper solution is to use optical fibers which offer lower losses. Single Mode Fiber (SMF) made from glass (silica) has attenuation losses below 0.2dB/km and 0.5dB/km in the 1.5um and 1.3um windows respectively.  2.4.2 Larger Potential Bandwidth Larger bandwidth is being offered by optical fibers. Larger bandwidth provides high capacity for transmitting high frequency signals and also enables high speed signal processing which is difficult to achieve in electronics systems. Basically there are three main transmission windows, namely 850nm, 1310nm, and 1550nm wavelengths, which offer low attenuation. Anyhow optical system has to combine with electronic system in order to perform different tasks. But bandwidth mismatch of the systems create problem which is known as electronic bottleneck. The solution to this problem is the use of effective multiplexing techniques such as OFDM, DWDM and SCM.  2.4.3 Easy Installation And Maintenance The plus point of RoF system is the Switching Centre (SC), which are less in numerical quantity because one SC is shared by several Remote stations (RSs), which are equipped with all the expensive and complex equipments and RSs are kept simpler which includes only photo detector, amplifier and an antenna, thus reducing system installation and maintenance cost.  2.4.4 Reduced Power Consumption As discussed earlier centralized SCs are equipped with complex equipment and RSs are kept simpler with less equipments thus resulting in reduced power consumption. Thus RSs can be operated in passive mode.  2.4.5 Immune To Interference And Crosstalk As we know that optical fibers form a dielectric waveguide therefore there are no concepts as electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference (RFI), or switching transients giving electromagnetic pulses (EMP). In fact it doesnt require shielding form EMI. Hence optical signal can be transmitted through electrically noisy environment unaffectedly. The optical fiber can be used underground or overhead as it is not disposed to lightening strike.  2.4.6 Signal Security In RoF system, optical signals are transmitted in the form of light, which doesnt radiate drastically, thus providing high degree of signal security. Therefore it is widely used in military, banking and general data transmission applications.  2.5 DISADVANTAGES OF RADIO OVER FIBER RoF systems can be called as analog communication system. Therefore signal impairments such as noise and distortion are worth considering in RoF. These impairments tend to limit Noise Figure (NF) and Dynamic Range (DR) of the RoF links. Chromatic dispersion may limit fiber link length when considering SMFs RoF. Modal dispersion can limit the available link bandwidth and distance when considering MMFs RoF system. Relative Intensity Noise(RIN), lasers phase noise, photodiodes shot noise, amplifiers thermal noise and fibres dispersion are few examples of noise sources in analog optical fibre links. 2.6 APPLICATIONS OF RADIO OVER FIBER Listed below are the few applications regarding RoF: 2.6.1 Mobile Communication Network A mobile network is a useful application of RoF technology. In the past decade the numbers of mobile subscribers coupled with the increasing demand of broadband service have been keeping massive pressure on the mobile service provider to provide vast capacity to the end user.  2.6.2 Video Distribution Systems (VDS) VDS is one of the major applications of RoF systems. In this case the Multipoint Video Distribution Service (MVDS) is used for mobile terrestrial transmission. In MVDS the transmitter serves the coverage area based on tall building. Gunn oscillators and heat pipes are used for frequency stabilization while a fiber link can be used for feeding a TWT or solid state amplifiers. This system provides reduction in weight and wind loading of transmitter.  2.6.3 Cellular Broadband Services Due to the very high bit rates of nearly 155 Mbps, carrier frequency is pushed into mm-waves. For this purpose frequency band in 66 GHz frequency band have been allocated. The 62-66 GHz band is used for downlink while 65-66 GHz frequency band can be used for uplink transmission.  2.6.4 Vehicle Control And Communication For vehicle communication and system the frequency band between 63 64 GHz and 76-77 GHz frequency band has been allocated. They are used to provide continuous mobile communication coverage in major areas for the purpose of intelligent transport systems which includes road to vehicle communication (RVC) and inter vehicle communication (IVC). These can be made simple and cost effective by feeding them through RoF system.  CHAPTER 3: ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING 3.1 THE PRINCIPLES OF OFDM Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is a multi carrier technique which divides the bandwidth into several carriers. Each carrier is modulated by a low rate data stream. OFDM has the ability to use the spectrum efficiently by spacing the channels close to each other. Closeness of the channels can result in the interference therefore to prevent interference all carriers are orthogonal to each other which means all carriers are independent to each other.  In FDMA a single channel is allocated to each user to transmit information. The bandwidth of each channel is about 10 kHz-30 kHz for voice communications. In order to prevent channels from interfering with one another, the allocated bandwidth is made wider than the minimum amount required. This extra bandwidth or spacing between channels is wasting about 50% of the total spectrum. As the channel bandwidth becomes narrower the problem becomes worst.  In TDMA multiple users access the same channel or utilized the full bandwidth in different time slots. Many low data rates users can be combined to transmit in a single channel thus bandwidth or spectrum can be used efficiently. There are two problems associated with TDMA. Firstly the symbol rate of each channel is high resulting in multipath delay spread. Secondly at the start time of each user to use bandwidth for data transmission, a change over time has to be allocated in order to prevent from propagation delay variations and synchronization errors. This change over time is a loss, limiting the number of users that can be accommodated efficiently in each channel.  OFDM is solution to both the problems occurring in FDMA and TDMA. Actually OFDM splits the available bandwidth into many narrow sub channels. As the carriers are orthogonal to each other which means they are purely independent of each other therefore they can be spaced very close to each other. Any time full utilization of bandwidth is possible in OFDM, therefore there is no need for users to be time multiplex and no more switching of the users for bandwidth. Users can send and receive data at any time unlike TDMA.  3.2 OFDM HISTORY The concept of OFDM was first developed in 1950s. A US copyright was issued in January 1970. The evolution of OFDM took place in order to use the available bandwidth or spectrum more efficiently.  OFDM was first implemented in military communications just like CDMA. KINIPLEX  and ANDEFT  are two examples of OFDM application in high frequency military system. AN/GSC-10(KATHRYN) variable rate data modem was the early application of OFDM which was built for high frequency radio. In 1980s, OFDM had been studied for high speed modems, digital mobile communications and high density recording. OFDM techniques for multiplexed QAM using DFT was discover by Hirosaki . He has also designed 19.2 kbps voice band data modem which uses QAM modulation. In 1990s, OFDM has been exploited for data communication over mobile radio FM channels, high bit rate digital subscribers lines(HDSL), very high speed digital subscriber lines(VHDSL), digital audio broadcasting(DAB), digital television, HDTV terrestrial broadcasting and asymmetric digital subscriber lines(ADSL). OFDM has been considered more towards mobile communication due to its robustness to multipath propagation. Recently OFDM has been put into practice in audio broadcasting applications such as DAB and DVB. And it has been successfully implemented in wireless LAN applications as well.  3.3 FOURIER TRANSFORM The application of OFDM was not very practical in 1960s. Quite a few numbers of oscillators were needed to generate the carrier frequencies for sub channel transmission. At that time it was a bit difficult to make it practical, that is why OFDM scheme was said to be impracticable. Complexity of the OFDM scheme was eliminated with the evolution of Fourier Transform where harmonically related frequencies are generated by Fourier and Inverse Fourier Transforms used to implement OFDM systems. Fourier Transform can be used in linear systems analysis, antenna studies, optics, random process modelling, probability theory, quantum physics and boundary-value problems. 3.4 OFDM REAL PARAMETERS In the last 10 years, the usage of OFDM has increased to enormous extent. It has been proposed for radio broadcasting such as EUREKA 147 standard and Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM). Some of the useful parameters are listed below:  Ã · Data rate: 6Mbps to 48 Mbps Ã · Modulation: BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM and 64 QAM Ã · Coding: Convolutional concatenated with Reed Solomon Ã · FFT size: 64 with 52 sub-carriers uses, 48 for data and 4 for pilots Ã · Sub carrier Frequency Spacing: 200 MHz divided by 64 carrier or 0.3125 MHz Ã · FFT Period / Spacing Period: 3.2usec Ã · Guard Duration: One quarter of symbol time, 0.8usec Ã · Symbol time: 4usec 3.5 ADVANTAGES OF OFDM Ã · Overlapping is used for efficient use of spectrum. Ã · OFDM systems are more often reluctant to freq selective fading by dividing the channel into narrowband sub channels. Ã · Cyclic prefix is used to discard ISI and IFI. Ã · The symbols lost due to selective fading can easily be recovered by using channel coding and interleaving. Ã · The use of single carrier systems makes channel equalization simpler by using adaptive equalization techniques. Ã · With reasonable complexity max likelihood decoding is possible. Ã · FFT techniques allow OFDM to be computationally efficient to the functions of modulation and demodulation. Ã · It can also be used for DAB systems and partial algorithms can be used for program selection. Ã · A channel estimator can easily be discarded with the use of differential modulation. Ã · As compared to single carrier systems OFDM is less sensitive to sample timing offset. Ã · OFDM gives extra protection concerning parasitic noise and co channel interference. Ã · In severe multipath orthogonality is preserved. Ã · OFDM is used in high speed applications and dynamic packet access is also supported. Ã · Transmitting and receiving diversity are supported. On the other hand OFDM also supports adaptive antenna arrays, space time coding and power allocation. 3.6 DISADVANTAGES OF OFDM Ã · The OFDM signal has a noise like amplitude with a very large dynamic range, therefore it requires RF power amplifiers with a high peak to average power ratio. Ã · It is more sensitive to carrier frequency offset and drift than single carrier systems. 3.7 PROBLEMS WITH OFDM 3.7.1 Peak To Average Ratio PAR is an important OFDM parameter which is defined as the ratio of peak instantaneous value to average time. It can also determine parameters such as current, voltage, phase and power of the signal. Since OFDM is a summation of several carrier signals therefore results in high PAR. The RF power needs to be increased to overcome the problem of efficiency in PAR. In order to increase the radio frequency power an amplifier is needed which can increase the cost of the system as it is expensive equipment. In order to solve the problems created by PAR, different encoding schemes should be used before the modulation. Also the improvement in the amplification stage of transmitter is needed such as post processing the time domain signal to reduce the peak to mean signal ratio.  3.7.2 Synchronization The performance of OFDM link can be optimized by using two kinds of synchronizations between transmitter and the receiver. Ã · Timing Synchronization: The timing offset of the symbol is not need to be determined and then the optimal timing instants. Ã · Frequency Synchronization: The carrier frequency of the received signal must be aligned at the receiving end. Timing sync can easily be achieved because the degree of sync error in OFDM structure is more severe. The sync techniques can be achieved by using known pilot tones that are embedded in OFDM signal or by using guard interval.  3.7.3 Co-Channel Interference In mobile communications co channel interference can be overcome by combining techniques related to adaptive antenna systems. Receiver antenna beam can be focused by beam steering while co channel interferers are attenuated. This is useful as OFDM is sensitive to co- channel interference.  3.8 APPLICATIONS OF OFDM Ã · High frequency modems used for military Ã · Voice band modems Ã · ADSL Ã · HDSL Ã · DAB Ã · Terrestrial Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB-T) Ã · Power line communication systems Ã · WLAN Ã · Cable modems Ã · Wavelength Division Multiplexing CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter includes the in depth study of the models built on MATLAB/SIMULINK. MATLAB version 7.8.0 (R2009a) is used for the modelling. Basically two models are designed whic