Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Ethical Staff Practices for Australian Hotel Industry

Question: Write about theEthical Staff Practices for Australian Hotel Industry. Answer: Introduction The hotel industry in Australia is one of the most competitive sectors of the economy. The country is associated with over 10,000 hotels in different categories. The sector, therefore, employs thousands of workers directly while others access jobs indirectly through the extended supply chain framework (AHA, 2010). The highest source of revenue for most of the hotels is the sales from liquor, which accounts for over 50% of the generated profits. On the other hand, hotels with gambling units enjoy over 30% income from the different activities associated with the established facilities (AHA, 2010). Moreover, the total expenditure of hotels in the Australian economy averages to $515.6 million annually, which explains why the sector is a major contributor to the GDP of the country. The level of competition emanating from the local and global trends and the changing customer expectations has generated the need for an advanced approach to hotel management, which span through strategic plann ing and development, client services, and sustainable human resource management (Nankervis, 1990). Moreover, the industry is subjected to regulations that govern the operability of the corporate affairs such as the interrelation with the customers, the suppliers, the shareholders, the states, and the employees. The existence of the regulations ensures that the operations of the hotels are within the local and international quality requirements (AHA, 2010). Such tendencies are mandatory for all investors in the sector irrespective of the scale of exploitation. One of the key concern in the sector is the contribution of employees to the level of success needed to generate growth and high revenue. Therefore, the big concern in the industry is an approach to human resource management that can encourage employee motivation and commitment to transform the performance outcome (Baum et al., 2016a). This paper presents a critical literature review regarding the level to which the hotel sector in Australia is practicing ethical staffing requirements. The paper looks at four key research pub lication regarding ethical staffing practices in the hotel industry in the country, where the discussion is based on the following two hypotheses. H1: A fair treatment of all employees occur within the five-star hotels in Australia. H2: Unethical and illegal practices of employing students prevail in Australian hotel industry. Ethical Staffing Practice in Hotel Industry The operations of hotels in Australia and other countries are governed by the enacted code of ethics relevant to the industry. One of the key guideline adopted among the developed economies is the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and Hospitality Sector among the European countries. In Australia, the hotel sector is required to adhere to policies that guarantee effectiveness and ethics based on the interaction with the stakeholders. The Australian hotel investors are therefore required to ensure that the customer satisfaction is effective through efficient service and safety operations, employees are satisfied through the safe working environment, and that the suppliers and shareholders are contented through sustainable engagements. Worth pointing out is that the relationship between the management and the employees in the hotel sector in the country are bound to requirements such as privacy, confidentiality, employee rights and privileges, safety and health, and fair compensation. The Australian Hotels Association has been instrumental in assisting the investors to adhere to the set standards and measures as described in the National Policy Industrial Relation codes. The organization plays a critical role in policy implementation in the country. Therefore, AHA plays a crucial role in developing, encouraging, and ensuring fair workplace relations that do not exploit employees (AHA, 2015). Moreover, the association protects the needs and interests of investors in the sector against unhealthy regulations. Scholarly Review Baum and the colleagues from major European countries (2016) carried out a thematic analysis of the correlation between sustainability needs based on the United Nations targets and the tourism and hospitality workforce. The scholars evaluated how the need for sustainable workforce and human resource practices in the hotel sector in the main countries such as Korea, China, Scotland, Australia, Malaysia, and New Zealand has been a dimension of the economy that has been neglected over the years (Baum et al., 2016). The researchers pointed out how the hotel sector employees are vulnerable to human resource malpractices. Worth revisiting is that the employees in the hotel sector across the globe have been facing staffing challenges such as the poor working environment, lack of concern for gender and minority groups, overdependence on seasonal jobs, lack of established career structure, escalated labor turnover, and low work status (Wood, 1997; Lucas and Deery, 2004; Baum, 2007; Baum, 2015; Kusluvan et al., 2010; Baum et al., 2016b). The factors identified in the research had also been documented in other analysis specific to different countries. The level of implementation of the intervention mechanisms to guarantee sustainable human resource practice in the hotel sector has been contrary to the increasing challenges as noted in Australia and Scotland (Solnet et al., 2014). Moreover, Nankervis (1993) examined the factors that are critical in enhancing the level of productivity in the Australian hotel sector. The study looked at the role of human resource management in improving the output of the industry. The research revealed that several factors have contributed to the inability of the sector to enhance the performance of the economy. Some of the identified shortcomings were market instability, oversupply accommodation, and human resource practices that limited employee productivity. Other factors such as gender imbalance and poor working environment also featured as elements of a degrading human resource management approach (Nankervis, 1993). On the other hand, Poulston (2008) reviewed the working conditions of an employee in the hospitality sector. The study was based on the views of employees regarding their dissatisfaction levels. The evaluation process included the exploration of the hotel workplaces with the objective of determining the unfair practices, unethical activities, and illegal dealing and process that jeopardize the working environment. The study revealed how most hotels did not prioritize the hygiene factor for employee safety and health. The scholar also showed, based on qualitative analysis, how motivational interventions have little influence on performance and commitment of employees whenever their health and safety are at risk (Poulston, 2008). Furthermore, Paulston (2010) also examined the implication of ethics in commercial hospitality based on the contribution and responsibility of the hotel managers in ensuring ethical standards. The research included the evaluation of the ethical problems associated with the hotel sector in the country. The study identified poor pay, unsafe working environment, sexual abuse among female staff, neglect, and lack of motivation as part of the unethical human resource practices that are overlooked in the hospitality sector across major economies such as Australia, New Zealand, Korea, and China (Paulston, 2010). The study concluded that the managers are aware of the unethical practices but are reluctant to take corrective measures. Critical Review and Emerging Trends The above studies have provided analytical details regarding the level of ethical practices in the hospitality sector. The studies have shown how the human resource approach in the hotel industry has been associated with several unethical practices. The working environment has been characterized by poor measures to encourage employee productivity. However, the level of implementation of the ethical practices differs based on the scale of operation of the hotels. Depending on the nature of the hotel sector in Australia, organizations can be classified into small scale and large scale enterprises. Most of the organizations operating on limited capital and market coverage find it a challenge to adhere to staffing ethics because of the cost of operation. Such tendencies encourage the increase in unethical behaviors. Moreover, in line with the qualitative analysis of the scholarly publications, business operating on high capital of investment such as the five-star hotels have the capacity to incorporate modern employee management practices that improve the working environment and the rate of turnover relevant to the targeted output. On the other hand, the existence of ethical malpractice in the sector can be linked to the nature of recruitment and retention associated with the organizations approach to human resource management. The research evaluation pointed the high number of female employees. The rate of discrimination and harassment is, therefore, a common phenomenon. Moreover, some of the organization have resorted to employing students through the work-study programs. The part-time employment of college students has encouraged the development of unethical practices such as poor remuneration, limited employee development approaches, and abuse of workers rights and privileges. Furthermore, most firms have inclined towards the hiring of semi-skilled workers based on the lower level of pay they will demand as opposed to trained professionals. The variability is seen for most small-scale hotels when compared to the five-star investments. Therefore, the possibility of unethical practices being advanced towards the uninformed workforce is high. Such tendencies are encouraged by the existence of poor sensitization programs within the working structure, which promote the prevalence of unethical staffing practices. There is a need for a comprehensive work structure to ensure that the employees are aware of their rights and privileges to understand their working environment and contribute towards safety, health, and development of workers and the organization. Furthermore, Paulstons studies in 2008 and 2010 pointed out the effect of human resource management approach. The conclusion of the survey showed that the administrators and managers have the tendency to neglect the implementation of corrective measures regardless of being aware of the unethical human resource practices. Factors such as the cost of implementation especially for small hotels as well as the perception of employees as a liability rather than an asset has encouraged such inclinations (Poulston, 2008; Poulston, 2010). However, the studies did not point to the negligence of the employees regarding the prevalence of unethical staffing practices in the hotel sector. The study only looked at the contribution of the manager in advancing the ethical malpractices. Employees may consider working in hostile environment whenever the option of leaving the job or raising the concerns regarding their experiences may jeopardize their job security. Such possibilities could also emanate from the lack of qualifications to seek alternative opportunities. Therefore, employees may choose to persevere the conditions, which is a situation the management can take advantage and neglect implementing transformational changes to improve working conditions. Such tendencies could explain the increasing hiring of college students and existence of part-time jobs in the sector as a measure to cut down the cost of operation. Conclusion In conclusion, the Australian hotel sector is one of the advanced hospitality industries in the world. The sector contributes to the economy development through employment and revenue generation. The existence of regulations regarding the framework of operation in the hotel sector is meant to ensure that the activities and the interaction between the business and the stakeholders are based on ethical standards. However, the Australian hospitality industry is associated with staffing malpractices that are against the employee-business guidelines. Although the five-star hotels and others operating on significant capital and serving extended size of the market have adhered to the required standards, some small hotels employ students and refer part-time employment as opposed to job security for the hired workers. Nevertheless, based on the reviewed studies, it is the responsibility of both the employees and the employer to ensure that the required working environment and productive relat ionships are established. The Australian Hotel Association has been keen in bridging the gap between the delivery of service and compliance with the set regulations and standards of human resource management. The organization ensures that the member hotels attain their profitability as well as achieve excellent employee satisfaction. References AHA, 2010. More than just a drink and flutter: An Overview of The Australian Hotels Industry April 2009. Available at: https://aha.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/PWC-Hotel-Industry-Report-20092.pdf AHA, 2015. Policy Statement Industrial Relations. Available at: https://aha.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/AHA-National-Policy-Industrial-Relations.pdf Baum, T., 2007. Human resources in tourism: Still waiting for change. Tour. Manag. Vol. 28, pp. 13831399. Baum, T., 2015. Human resources in tourism: Still waiting for change - A 2015 reprise. Tour. Manag. Vol. 50, pp. 204212. Baum, T., Cheung, C., Haiyan Kong. H., Kralj, A., and Mooney, S., 2016a. Sustainability and the Tourism and Hospitality Workforce: A Thematic Analysis. Sustainability, Vol. 8, p. 809. Available at: www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability Baum, T., Kralj, A., Robinson, R., and Solnet, D., 2016b. Tourism workforce research: A review, taxonomy and agenda. Ann. Tour. Res. Vol. 60, pp. 122. Kusluvan, S., Kusluvan, Z., Ilhan, I., and Buyruk, L., 2010. The human dimension: A review of human resource management issues in the tourism and hospitality industry. Cornell Hosp. Quart. Vol. 51, pp. 171214. Lucas, R. and Deery, M., 2004. Significant developments and emerging issues in human resource management. Int. J. Hosp. Manag. Vol. 23, pp. 459472. Nankervis, A. R., 1990. Servants or Service: Perspectives of the Australian Hotel Industry,Working Paper No. 73, August, School of Business, University of Western Sydney: Sydney. Nankervis, A. R., 1993. Enhancing Productivity in the Australian Hotel Industry: The Role of Human Resource Management,Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 1(1), 17-39. Poulston, J. M., 2008. Working conditions in hospitality: Employees views of the dissatisfactory hygiene factors. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality Tourism, Vol. 10, Iss. 1., pp. 23 43. Poulston, J. M., 2010. Ethics in commercial hospitality. Workshop working papers, Paper number 10292, CAUTHE. Available at: https://aut.researchgateway.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10292/1605/CAUTHE.03.pdf?sequence=6 Solnet, D., Nickson, D., Robinson, R., Kralj, A., and Baum, T., 2014. Discourse about workforce development in tourism - An analysis of public policy, planning, and implementation in Australia and Scotland: Hot air or making a difference? Tour. Anal. Vol. 19, pp. 609623. Wood, R., 1997. Working in Hotels and Catering, 2nd ed.; International Thomson: London, UK.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

What Is an Educated Filipino Sample Essay Example For Students

What Is an Educated Filipino? Sample Essay Narrative poesy is poesy that tells a narrative and is the oldest genre poesy. The most popular signifier of narrative poesy is likely the lay. Lyric poesy is a signifier of poesy that does not try to state a narrative as do heroic poems poesy and dramatic poesy. but is of a more personal nature alternatively. The lyric poet addresses the reader straight and portrays his or her ain feelings. province of a head. and perceptual experiences. Common subjects are love. war and peace. nature and nostalgia. heartache and loss. Nature subjects are besides outstanding in lyric poesy. Dramatic poesy is any poesy in which one or more characters speak. Dramatic poesy, by and large, uses the conversation of the characters involved to state a narrative or portray a state of affairs. Elements of Drama We will write a custom essay on What Is an Educated Filipino? Sample specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Imitation In simple footings. imitation means the act of copying a person or something. It is an act of copying the ways person negotiations and behaves. particularly to entertain. In literature. imitation is used to depict a realistic portraiture of life. a reproduction of natural objects and actions. This type of imitation includes composing in the spirit of the Masters utilizing simply their general rules; borrowing particular â€Å"beauties† an idea and look from the plants of the best poets; or accommodating their stuff to the writer’s ain age. Plot A batch of volumes has been written on play and facets of play of which secret plan is one of them. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines a secret plan as a â€Å"plan or line of events of a narrative particularly of a novel or a story†. In a dramatic secret plan. unlike in the novel where the writer describes the characters and incidents they are involved in. the drama Wright presents the characters in action. This means that a secret plan in play develops through what the characters do or state. what is done to them? and or what is said about them or to them. This is why in his sentiment. Grebanier describes the secret plan as â€Å"an affair of action of works that are done during the class of the story†. Dramatic Action In simple footings. the action is the procedure of making something or the public presentation itself. If the person slaps you and you retaliate. there is an action. The series of events that constitute the secret plan in any literary work is referred to as action it includes what the characters say. do. believe and in some instances. fail to make. The action involves activity. This activity becomes more marked in play where the action is presented in concrete signifier as the histrions present the narrative to the audience for amusement and instruction. In play. particularly during a public presentation. you see the characters traveling about to execute certain undertakings. talk to one another. laugh. call. battle. shoot or make anything harmonizing to the demands of the minute. All these are dramatic actions. In the novel. you read the narrative as is told by the novelist and see the action in your imaginativeness but in play the playwright presents the action through what the cha racters do or state. In fact, it involves all the activities of all the characters in the drama. Dialogue Dialogue is a treatment between two or more people. In literary plants. it refers to a composing in a colloquial signifier. In the novel, it is incorporated into the narrative. that is. as the narrative progresses. the novelist gives two or more characters the chance to discourse or notice on certain issues and the narrative continues in prose signifier. However. in play. the full narrative is presented in duologue.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Deviance Essays (386 words) - Criminology, Social Constructionism

Deviance Deviance Not everyone behaves in the way society expects or approves. Since children they start to change the values of their own parents. As adults, they may choose entirely different ways of life. In all societies, there are people who dream of being what they aren't. Sometimes they decide to challenge the system, to push out beyond the limits established by law or tradition. Political radicals, school dropouts, women who refuse the role of homemaker or mother. They are willing be labeled troublemakers or simply, deviants because they believe that society's norms should change. Professional thieves, and bank robbers also violate norms, but their deviance is not usually based on a belief that society should change. More commonly on thieves, is that they always want a bigger reward for what they do for a living. Sociologists define deviance as behavior that violates an essential social norm. Deviants are people who go beyond the limits of socially acceptable behavior. Although the definition of deviance is simple, deviant acts in real life are hard to turn down. No single act, not even taking another person's life is forbidden at all times in any human society. Deviance is relative. What is deviant behavior in one place may be acceptable in another place. For an act to be deviant, it must be considered so by law or rules. A behavior may be seen as normal, even desirable, by some people and as deviant by others. For example, a student who spends a lot of time doing library research may win a teacher's respect and appreciation but be considered as a nerd by other students. What is normal or desirable to the teacher can be deviant to other students. Some of these students, those who refuse to study are deviant by the norms of the teacher and of most of society. In our society is easy to find varieties between acceptable and unacceptable behavior and the punishment for violation of the norm. Such variations are more characteristic of large, advanced societies like ours than of small societies bound by a set of strong, shared traditions. In the topic of Crime, discusses lawbreaking, an obvious form of deviance, and the methods used by society in attempting to control it. They are three important theories of deviance: anomie, deviant subcultures, and labeling. Sociology Essays

Sunday, November 24, 2019

How A Black Box Works essays

How A Black Box Works essays Have you ever wondered what a black box is. If so, you might have some questions about an actual color of it and how it is involved with every aircraft. A black box is known as a flight recorder which can record both flight data and captain voice. Even though it is called a black box, it is painted orange. This recording device costs the same as a compact car does, which is about $ 15,000. Because of high quality and endurance materials, it still survives when getting the impact, crashing or even fired after the accident (see Picture 1). When an airplane is collapsed, there are several unanswered clues what bring the plane crush. The only incredible device that can tell us is the black box. The process of how a black box works consists of four main steps; exploring the device, setting the device, operating on the flight, and finding the information after crushing. (see Figure 1: The Process of How A Black Box Works Exploring a black box is the first step of the process. To explore a black box we first have to see what are the main parts of a black box. A black box is composed of two parts. The first part is cockpit voice recorder and the second one is flight data recorder (see Picture 2). Most of two parts are made of a magnetic tape and solid-state memory boards. the magnetic tape is less reliable then solid-state recorder because solid-state used a whole chunk of chips, so there is no moving part along the recorder device. This brings about less maintenance and less chance of something cracking during any accidents. Solid-state recorder can also record more data than magnetic tape because of the flat shape which allows the data flow faster and can store up to 25 hours of flight data A black box also has the microphones which are designed to record captain voice in the cockpit, located in four different places; pilots headset, copilots headset, third pilots headset a ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Analyze the Sochi 2014 Olympics game,pairs figure skating,Russian Essay

Analyze the Sochi 2014 Olympics game,pairs figure skating,Russian player, - Essay Example The main goal of this team is to outscore its main opponents and emerge as clear winners. The fact that Russia is the hosts means that fans will come out in large numbers and support the team. The team has six members. One of them is Vera Bazarova. She is twenty-one years old and has already competed in a number of events despite her young age. She has competed at the Olympic winter games, world championships, European championships and the grand prix final. Vera loves reading, cooking and going out. She is still a student who started her sporting career in 1997. The main reason that made her to start this sport was to improve her poor health. Her main coach is Nina Mozer. Ksenia Stolbova is another team member. She is twenty-two years old and has already taken part in other championships, as well. She is a student who loves shopping and spending time with friends. She began the sport in 1997, as well. Maxim Trankov is another senior member who is thirty years old. He has lots of experience having competed in several competitions. He loves hip-hop music, using computers and reading. He studied at the Moscow State University. He is fluent in English and Russian. In 2011, h e injured his shoulder while in training. Additionally, he suffered from swelling in his right arm at the 2008 world championships. Fedor Klimov is another member of the team. He is twenty-three years old and has taken part in various competitions as well. He loves football, watching television and relaxing. In 2013, he missed some two and half months of action due to injury. The coach for the team is Nina Mozer. She was born in 1964. The team is mainly characterized by both experience and athleticism. The youngest member is aged 21 while the oldest ages 30. The older members have taken part in other events, in the past. The organization of the team is even, and external influences

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Hospital health issues in cleaning up after katerina by industrial Case Study

Hospital health issues in cleaning up after katerina by industrial hugienist - Case Study Example The water supply of the hospital contains raw sewerage, lethal bacteria, pesticides and insecticides. Furthermore, we have to immediately deal with mosquitoes and other insects to prevent the spread of malaria, west Nile disease etc. We are also faced with a serious problem regarding infectious waste and the possibility of exposure to biological and toxic contaminants. On the other hand, our team faces a high risk of Carbon Monoxide poisoning because the premises is unable to provide its own power supply. Therefore, all operations are powered using large FEMA portable energy generators. I carried out analytical tests on air samples from different parts of the hospital. The results are very alarming as the hospital air is contaminated with high levels of lethal air borne bacteria particularly the air sample taken from the hospital diagnostic laboratory and the operation theatres is extensively contaminated. Lack of ventilation is the major reason why air contamination has exaggerated over the last six weeks. In addition, most areas of the hospital are covered with mold therefore mold exposure is a serious issue as well. Furthermore, we need a fresh supply of vaccinations so all our workers can be immunized against disease which prevail after Katrina. (Richardson et al 2008; Nims 1999). Recommendations and Guidance: Spread of water borne diseases such as cholera needs to be controlled immediately. Clean drinking water is a basic necessity. Therefore, I strongly recommend that water for drinking and washing purposes should be boiled to kill lethal water borne pathogens. On the other hand, combination of chemical methods can also be employed to effectively remove harmful pathogens which cause diseases such as dysentery and cholera. I recommend the use of Personal Protective Equipment in order to minimize the incidence of problems associated with Carbon monoxide poisoning and exposure to air borne pathogens. However, improper use of PPE imposes serious health hazard s therefore I have planned to counsel members of our team who are not familiar with proper PPE usage. I recommend that all clean up recovery workers should use respiratory protective equipments and protective goggles while working in or near the vicinity of diagnostic lab, operation theatre and the pharmacy. It is mandatory for everyone involved in the clean up process to wear gloves (Nims 1999). I recommend that hospital cafeteria/kitchen on the first floor should be subjected to cleaning process immediately in order to prevent workers from eating in contaminated areas. Moreover, we will only be able to run one refrigerator on energy provided by the FEMA generators. Therefore, it is advisable to cook small portions of food in order to limit the use of the refrigerator. To increase ventilation I recommend the installation of portable units of Local Exhaust Ventilation systems, which would prove tremendously beneficial for long term management of air borne pathogens. (American Hospit al Association.1979). In addition, long term recovery efforts should involve the use of portable air cleaning devices which would significantly reduce the incidence of air borne diseases once the hospital service is re established. Hospitals floors should be disinfected by using combinations of disinfectants and in order to effectively eliminate molds it is necessary to dry all indoor areas. I

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Review article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 11

Review - Article Example The paper aims at investigating whether Vitamin A -based chromophore is essential in photo reception by the ipRGS. In addition, the paper seeks to investigate the function of melanopsin in signaling the photo-pigments. In responding to these uncertainty, the paper studies a knock-out mouse line which lacks the RPE65 (rpe65–/–), which is a substantial protein that regenerates the 11–cis–retinal in the RPE. In essence, the paper succinctly covers the topic by ascertaining that there are other photo receptors within the mammalian retina other than the known rods and cones. The main concept behind this paper is to have a clear understanding of the diversity of the ipRGCs and their different functions in regulating behavior. The findings illustrate that Rpe65–/– ipRGCs were 20–40–fold and are not photosensitive whether at single cell or behavioral (PLR) levels. The photosensitivity detected is expressed by exogenous 9–cis–retinal, an 11–cis–retinal analog. In addition, there was no detection of Melanopsin in the retinal pigment epithelium or any results both in the rod and cone sensitivities. This is a factor that led to ablation of Melanopsin in both the ERG and single cell

Friday, November 15, 2019

Using Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Engineering Essay

Using Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Engineering Essay Automation is the integration of mechanical, computer electronic based activities the control of manufacturing processes in the field of production. Different techniques of automation are carried using pneumatic, hydraulic system, cam follower computer system. In this project of automation of burr cleaning process, I have selected and implemented the pneumatic technique of automation. For automation, I have designed manufactured air blowing machine, which is operated with the help of pneumatic system controlled by PLC. In this mechanism the DLL nozzle is run over the guide way clamp by pneumatic cylinder. Then the air pressure of 5 bars is supplied to the tip of nozzle through jet which cleans the burr form nozzle ball end. I assembled air blowing machine with pneumatic cylinders for clamping, unclamping, supporting individualizing purpose, proximity sensor other necessary components. In this automation of air blowing machine I studied different types of machining processes, pneumatic system, and PLC system. After automation of air blowing machine the working stress on operator is reduced the production rate is substantially increased with improvement in quality of burr cleaning process. Chapter 1 : Introduction This project identifies and describes the automation process used to clean and deburr the nozzle which is present in fuel injection system, through the working of Air blowing machine. Air blowing machine uses different concepts of automation such as pneumatic, hydraulics, cam-follower etc. The main function of this machine is to control manufacturing process in production. 1.1.Background Nozzle is one of the vital component in any fuel injection system which is attached to the nozzle holder. It is integral and important part of an injector which regulates the flow of fuel to the ultimate ignition compartment.. According to Sean Bennet all Diesel engines (DI) are directly injected. The fuel is injected into the cylinder immediately above the piston. Atomization is necessary for the injected fuel. Atomization of the fuel requires breaking it up into very small liquid droplets. These droplets are produced by forcing very high high-pressure fuel through minutely sized orifices or holes. The smaller the droplets, the faster it will vaporize and ignite when it is propelled into the engine cylinder. The size of droplets that exits the injector depends on following factors : Size of Orifice: The diameter of the orifice determines the size and flow of in the system. It does not change after it has been manufactured. Pressure :Injection pumps manages the pressure in nozzles. The higher the pressure, the smaller the droplets exiting the nozzle. The means to inject the fuel into the cylinder is an injector nozzle. Injector are further subdivided in two types with respect of an electronically controlled pump and injector components : Multiple-orifice hydraulics nozzles. Electrohydraulic nozzles. Injector nozzles are mostly used in diesel engines, marine engines, locomotives and automobile industrial equipments .The main function of nozzle is to convert the diesel into diesel vapours and spray it on the piston. Injector nozzles are widely used in American tanks. Figure 1.1 External view of injector/orifii nozzle (Courtesy of Robert Bosch GmbH,www.bosch-presse.de) The main users of nozzles are Nissan, Mitsubishi while Bosch is one of the leading manufacturers of these nozzles .Manufacturing process of this nozzle is carried through several operations after case hardening. These operations are drilling, grinding and pinning of the orifice. After the compete process of pinning, it is found that some metal particles and burr is remained at the orfii. In order to eliminate this particle nozzle testing machine is required to test the nozzle. 1.2 Issue : Air blowing operation is carried by an operator with the help of cylinder or jet directly attached to compressed air supply. To serve this purpose operator clamps the whole tray full of nozzles and then he reverse it. This gives more fatigue and stress to the operator because of its heavy weight. Then jet is placed on the ball end of nozzle and part gets clean. One part is been cleaned at a time. Furthermore, since inside of the nozzle body function as passage to the fuel ,if any chip or burr generated in cutting process remain on the nozzle body, it enters into the contact surface of the valve element and causes malfunction and fuel spillage of the valve element, which result into the loss of product reliability. The aim of the task is to make air blowing operation which is done after pinning to remove burr present inside the nozzle automatic and reliable, so the stress on operator is reduced with control manufacturing system. 1.3. Objectives : The main objectives of the project are stated as follows: To study and implement the pneumatic technique of automation for the successful working of the machine. To design and develop Air blowing machine which will be used in manufacturing and cleaning process of nozzle present in the fuel injection system. After the Research of Diesel Engine from Books and internet it is found that nozzle is one of the important part in fuel injection system. Nozzle development led to study the manufacturing processes of nozzle. Bosch company are the leading producers and patent of the diesel engine stated by Rudolf Diesel. In the general manufacturing process of nozzle after the case hardening, drilling, ball-grinding and pinning are important operation for the processing of the nozzle. However it is found out that during this operation burr or free metal particle gets collected inside the nozzle body. Introduction of Air blowing machine : To remove this burr or free metal particle Air blowing machine is introduced for the improved performance of the nozzle. Draft Design and 3d model: In order to build a successful Air blowing machine, design is very important to generate the safe and working model. Selection of materials, shape, parameters is the important factors to develop a 3D model of machine. Softwares like solid works, CES and some hand calculation is useful for the correct and accurate 3D draft design. Analysis and Results : After the complete design process of the machine the next and important stage is the mechatronic analysis. Pneuamatic and Electronics (PLC circuit ) techniques are used for the successful and automatic working of the machine. If these techniques are successful then go to the next stage or else go back and recheck the 3D model again. After the analysis, results indicates the final consequence for the actions of the work. Validation of results gives the reality check of the project. If the validation is true then follow the next stage and conclude the project with the useful recommendations. Chapter three : Literature Review 3.1 Patent and Research : Bosch group is one of the leading manufacturers of these nozzles and equipment for motor vehicle. In early as 1863, the Frenchman Etienne Lenoir had tested and driven a vehicle which was powered by a gas engine which he had developed. However, this vehicle proved insufficient for installing in and driving. It was not until Nikolaus August Ottos four-stroke engine with magneto ignition that operation with liquid fuel and thereby mobile application were made possible. But the efficiency of these engines was low. Rudolf Diesel then developed an engine with much higher efficiency and to pursue his idea through higher efficiency and to pursue his idea through manufacturing. In 1897, in cooperation with Machinenfabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg ,Rudol Diesel built the first working prototype of a combustion engine to be run on inexpensive fuel oil. However due to heavy weight of the engine, it wasw not considered for use in land vehicle. But with further improvements in fuel injecton and mixture formation, Diesels innovation caught on and there were no longer any viable alternatives for marine and fixed-installation engines.(Adopted from Robert Bosch Gmbh, DIESEL-Engine Management by Wiley 4t edition et al 2005) In 1886,Robert Bosch (1861-1942), introduced a workshop for electrical and mechanical engineers in Stuttgart, Germany. Later on in 1897 Bosch opened ignition system in gasoline engines. In 1922,Robert Bosch turned his attention to diesel engine and hence started manufacturing accessory parts such as nozzles and fuel injection pumps. Rudolf diesel wanted to inject the fuel directly earlier in the system, but was unable to do this because of unavailability of the nozzles and fuel-injection pumps. In contrary these pumps were used in compressed-air injection, had to be suitable for back pressure reactions of up to several different atmospheres. Nozzles had to have quite fine outlet openings because the task fell upon the pump and nozzle is increased to atomize the fuel. Hence in 1922 Bosch wanted to develop the nozzles and fuel-injection pumps that fulfils the requirement of all the heavy-oil low power engines with direct fuel injection. 3.2 Development of the system : The demand of fuel injection equipment on such that it should be a capable of injecting even small amounts of fuel with only quite small differences, so that it should facilitate more smoother and constant at low idle speeds. The performance of this system depends highly on injection pressure which should be average or above 100 bar. The operating hours of the pump was over 2000 according to Bosch. Hence the need to develop the related equipments had grown immensely with application of materials and production engineering. In 1925, Bosch joined hands with Acro AG to utilize the Acro patents on a diesel engine system with related injected equipments(nozzle). Acro injection properties did not matched, Boschs own test system but it offered diesel engine which was suitable for small cylinder units and high speeds and this led Bosch to develop nozzle and fuel injection pump. Sooner the first diesel fuel-injection pump by Bosch was produced Nozzle were developed parallel to pump development. Hole type nozzle were added later after the introduction of pintle nozzle. The nozzle were adapted with their process and size. Engineering manufacturers also wanted a nozzle which could be used in spark plug on a gasoline engine. 3.3 Expert View : 3.4 Scope of improvement: Diesel fuel injection has greater degree of features in world of technology. The needle valve in fuel injection system opens and close nozzle more than million times in the service life of nozzle. It generates and provides pressure as high as 2,050 bar and depends on stresses such as: Temperature and pressure of the combustion chamber . Shock caused by continuous opening and closing. High flow related stresses during fuel injection. Below are the features of the nozzle and its processes: Injection duration is 1-2 milliseconds which is higher compare to sound wave from loudspeaker . Pressure in the fuel-injection chamber is more than 2,050 bar and it operates efficiently at such a high pressure. Injection duration in vehicle varies from very low range to high range,hence the amount of fuel is forced at very high velocity through a very small opening. The clearance of valve needle is 0.002 mm which is very minimal. Hence high technology demands an enormous amount of expertise in development, materials and manufacturing techniques. 3.2 Current stage : Processes on nozzle : During the manufacturing process when part is about to go through final processses,case hardeniing is done on it. After case hardening, part goes through two operation as folllows : Drilling of the Orifice Ball Grinding at ball end from outer surface. When nozzle comes out for drilling, it is first hardened. Then the orifice is drilled at the ball end. According to the requirement the number of orifice varies from 3-8.The diameter of orifice is within 0.3-0.4 mm.DLL nozzles are further classified in many types with number of orifice. Fig1.2:Orifice drilled at ball end Then the part is brought to grinding station, where part goes through outer grinding at the ball end. Fig 1. Grinding at ball end after drilling A metal burr is remained at the entrance of the orifice due to the grinding. This metal burr reduces the performance of the nozzle. Hence it is necessary to remove this burr .To serve this burr, pinning operation is done on nozzle so that burr gets removed. Fig:1.4 Metal burr remain at ball end due to grinding Pinning :- Pinning is the operation in which a needle having comparatively smaller diameter than orifice is attached to the small motor having speed of 300 rpm.This needle is then inserted in the orifice.Due to this the burr is removed and gets collected inside the nozzle at the ball end. These free metal particles reduces the performance of nozzle or can damage the nozzle inside the body.Its not an easy task to remove this free metal particle.An air pressure of 5-10 bar is blown inside the nozzle from ball end to come out from other end of the nozzle as shown in below figure Fig 1.5 Air blowing through orifice to remove free metal particle Chapter 4 : Design Introduction of Air Blowing Machine Fig: Air Blowing Machine 4.1 Introduction of Air Blowing Machine It is the machine used to remove the free metal particles present inside the nozzle body. The main function of this machine is to remove this free metal. To remove this metal air is been blown inside the nozzle at 5bar pressure. Pneumatic circuit is attached to the machine and it is controlled by PLC. Hence it is based on mechatronics. Mechatronics is the branch of engineering which is defined as the combination of mechanical and electronics engineering to improve quality, productivity and effective utilization of energy. Pneumatics deals with usage of compressed air to create motion and hence can be utilised for doing useful work. Certain characteristics of compressed air have made this medium suitable for the use in modern manufacturing and production plants. Introduction of pneumatics in the manufacturing process benefited with cheaper medium of industrial automation which if judiciously used, may bring down the cost of production to much lower level. Many mechanical task that came across can be achieved pneumatically in nozzle manufacturing process. 4.2 Material Selection of Materials : Material should be softer than Nozzle material. The optimum material is Mild Steel according to CES software Properties of mild steel (C3O) : Carbon percentage = 0.3% Modulus of Elasticity= 2.06105 N/mm ² Modulus of Rigidity = 0.79105 N/mm ² Poissons Ratio = 0.3 Tensile Strength = 600 to 750 N/mm ² Yield Strength = 400 N/mm ² Izod Impact Value = 55Nm Density = 7.7810 4.3 Hand -Calculation for Design : Angle of Inclination for the Guide way : Fig : Forces on Nozzle Data Found : Mass of nozzle = 200gm Co-efficient of friction = 8 % Weight (w) = 0.20 9.81 = 1.962 N Let, R= Reaction force. ÃŽ ¨ = Angle of contact Addition of forces in horizontal direction is zero. Hence, ÃŽ £Fx = 0 R = w cos ÃŽ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 1 Addition of forces in vertical direction is also zero. Hence, ÃŽ £Fy = 0 ÃŽ ¼R = w sin ÃŽ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦2 Now by dividing equation 2 by 1 we get, ÃŽ ¼ = tan ÃŽ ¨ 0.08 = tan ÃŽ ¨ ÃŽ ¨ = 4.573ËÅ ¡ Therefore, ÃŽ ¨ = 5ËÅ ¡ To find reaction, From equation 1, R = w cos ÃŽ ¨ R = 1.962 cos (5) R = 1.9543 Factor of safety for design : Design of Cylinder holder : 1 Fig : Cylinder holder for cylinder Air pressure = 5 bar Force by the cylinder = 245 N†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.(Reference solid works ) Hence, Bending moment = Force x Displacement = 245 x 36 = 8820 N-mm Static load through stress, Volume of the holder = 4042 x15 +15 x15 x71 x40 = 67.8 x 10 ³ mm ³ Mass = Density x Volume = 7.78 x10-6 x 67.8 x 10 ³ = 0.5278 Kg Weight (P1) = mass x gravitational acceleration = 0.5278 x 9.81 = 5.1746 N Total weight (P) = Wt. of element + Wt. of cylinder = 5.1746 + 0.59.81 = 10.0746 N Stresses at the joint (ÏÆ') = P à · A = 10.0746 à · 6515 = 10.338 10-3 N/mm ² Extension in the element (ÏÆ'st) = (ÏÆ' à · E) x L = (10.33810-3 à · 2.06x 105) x 35 = 1.756 x 10-6 mm Maximum Impact load acting on the bolt (Pmax) = P {1+√ [(2 h) à · ÏÆ'st ] } = 10.0746 {1+ √ [(2 x 50) à · 1.756 x 10-6]} = 76.06 x 10 ³N Stress produce due to Impact load (ÏÆ'p) =√ [(2 E P h) à · (AL)] = √ [(2x 2.06x 105 x (10.1746+245) x 50) à · (6515 x 35)] = 392.47 N/mm ² 392.47 N/mm ² < 600 N/mm Stress produce due to impact load less than 600 N/mm hence design is safe.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Type :: essays research papers

We are well accustomed to the written word as a primary method of communication in our culture. Its primary elements, the characters of the modern alphabet, were once quite literal symbols of everyday objects which were gradually abstracted to the letters of the alphabet. While cave paintings, dating as far back as 20,000 B.C. are the first evidence of recorded pictures, true written communication is thought to have been developed some 17,000 years later by the Summerians, around 3500 B.C. They are known to have recorded stories and preserved records using simple drawings of everyday objects, called pictograms. As civilizations become more advanced, they experienced the need to communicate more complex concepts. Around 3100 B.C., Egyptian hieroglyphics incorporated symbols representing thoughts or ideas, called ideograms, allowing for the expression of more abstract concepts than the more literal pictograms. A symbol for an ox could mean food, for example, or the symbol of a setting sun combined with the symbol for a man could communicate old age or death. By 1600 B.C., the Phoenicians had developed symbols for spoken sounds, called phonograms. For example, their symbol for ox, which they called aleph, was used to represent the spoken sound â€Å"A† and beth, their symbol for house, represented the sound â€Å"B†. In addition to sounds, phonograms could also represent words. Today, our own alphabet contains many such phonograms: % for percent, ? for question, and $ for dollars. It is the Phoenicians who are generally credited with developing the first true alphabet— a set of symbols representing spoken sounds, that could be combined to represent spoken language. They traded with many cultures, spreading their alphabet throughout the Western world. Around 1,000 B.C., the Phoenician alphabet was adapted by the Greeks, who developed the art of handwriting in several styles. The word â€Å"alphabet† comes from the first two Greek letters alpha and beta. Several hundred years later, the Romans used the Greek alphabet as the basis for the uppercase alphabet that we know today. They refined the art of handwriting, fashioning several distinctive styles of lettering which they used for different purposes. They scribed a rigid, formal script for important manuscripts and official documents and a quicker, more informal style for letters and routine types of writing. By A.D. 100, the Romans had developed a fast growing book industry and, as Roman handwriting continued to evolve, lower case letters and rough forms of punctuation were gradually added.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Does Herodotus believe in Cultural Relativism Essay

For its time and place, The Histories of Herodotus is a work of remarkably expansive scope. To set the stage for the wars between Greece and Persia ( 490-479 B. C. ), Herodotus describes the geographical and cultural background and reviews the political history of Lydia, Media, Babylon, Egypt, Persia, Scythia, Libya, Ionia, and various Greek city-states in Asia Minor, on the Aegean islands, and on the European mainland. To record the results of his â€Å"research† (historie, in Greek) with the greatest vigor and accuracy, Herodotus traveled to many of these places and gathered firsthand data from native informants. For this type of research, in the words of a modern commentator, Herodotus merits the title not only of the father of history; he is also the father of comparative anthropology. Among the various classes of information which Herodotus seems to have emphasized, thus suggesting a pattern for later descriptions, were marriage customs, religious rites, burial practices, and food habits. The description of these four categories of traits, or â€Å"social institutions,† were not necessarily executed in the round for every tribe that happened to stroll across the pages of the Histories; but they were mentioned often enough to indicate the direction taken by his curiosity, and the content of the questions he probably put to informants. Herodotus, the ancient Greek, was a cheerful, inquisitive, rationalistic extrovert who traveled over his world to discover the facts, who took delight in telling a good story but usually avoided the temptation to wander very far from sober common sense. His cultural relativism is well known and much discussed, but it is particularly noteworthy that Greeks and barbarians are placed on a equal footing at the outset. Distinctions between Greek and non-Greek break down as the work progresses: the first barbarian for whom we get any detailed information is the Hellenized Lydian king, Croesus; the divisions of lands customary among the Greeks that separate Greek and non-Greek peoples are purely arbitrary; we learn of the Phoenician descent of Sparta’s kings; and Herodotus states that the descendants of Perseus came to be counted as Greeks. The key dichotomy is not the Hellenic-barbarian bipolarity, but rather the opposition of the ordered society based on law and the arbitrary rule of the despot. But political and social institutions are fragile structures, and Herodotus gives no guarantee that the Greek superiority at the time of the Persian Wars, which was based upon those institutions, will last. In fact his work closes on an ominous note that appears to warn imperial Athens that it is in danger of becoming, if it has not already become, the barbarian. We are presented with the gruesome picture of the crucifixion of the Persian satrap Artayctes at the command of the Athenian commander Xanthippus, father of Pericles, and a piece of wisdom from the Persian founding father, Cyrus, on the dangers of success and affluence. And it is well to remember that Herodotus wrote long after the Persian threat had passed, when Athenian imperial power was at its apogee. Herodotos’ interest in reciprocity is symptomatic of contemporary philosophy, not least in Ionia. Moreover, Herodotos’ very project, his attempt to explain and explore the Persian Wars, can be considered as a study of reciprocity in cross-cultural interaction, not least because those wars were for Herodotos a stage in a reciprocal, cross-cultural process, as he asserts in the proem. Indeed, war itself may be seen as an exchange, a reciprocal undertaking: the tactics of the Skythian Idanthyrsos allow him to wage war while explicitly rejecting the relationship that war usually entails. Herodotos’ origins in western Asia Minor, a key area of interface between Greek and non-Greek culture, may have led him to give particular thought to the issue of cross-cultural reciprocity, as also to the Persian Wars, for which the Ionian Revolt had been the catalyst, if not the cause. At the same time, the justice and injustice of imperialism remained a burning issue through the fifth century into the fourth, and not only Persian imperialism, but also Athenian, Spartan, and Macedonian. The Persian Wars were the great antecedents of the Peloponnesian War, in the early years of which Herodotos seems to have completed his work. The Persians themselves continued to play a major role in the politics of the Greek world: the onset of the Peloponnesian War seems to have inspired new attempts to deal with them, and with other non-Greeks, as indicated in comic style in Aristophanes’ Akharnians of 425 BC. 25 This is understandable, for it was to be Persian resources that would give ultimate victory to the Spartans in that war. Thus, it is quite possible that crosscultural reciprocity was a topical concern in Athens and elsewhere when Herodotos completed his work, though the issue had been close to the centre of Greek preoccupations at least since the time of the Persian Wars, Herodotos’ subject. The Persian Wars had reinforced a Hellenic self-image, defined by contrast with the ‘barbarian’ identity, and had thereby further problematized relationships between Greek and non-Greek. In particular, Greeks (especially Athenians, perhaps) could and did use their defeat of Persia as confirmation of a broader superiority over the barbarian. In exploring the difficulties of forming relationships with the ‘other’, Herodotos’ Histories present readers with failures and disasters, arising primarily from ignorance, over-confidence, and cultural chauvinism. There is a definite element of pessimism in the Histories, for the inability to penetrate beyond contingent nomoi and thereby to see ‘other’ as ‘self’ is taken to be an observable feature of human nature, as manifested throughout the narrative. In particular, wars are seen to be the products of injustice and attendant ignorance. But there is also hope; for the author claims for himself the ability to rise above commonplace failings and offers to provide his readers with a better understanding of themselves, of others, and of reciprocity. Like Kroisos, the reader may pass into a state of deeper understanding through advice confirmed by experience. Where Kroisos had the advice of Solon and suffered personal disaster, the reader has the advice of Herodotos the author and suffers vicarious disaster, ‘experiencing experiences’. Baldry notices that Herodotos calls into question the whole dichotomy between Greek and barbarian, when he presents the Egyptian perspective, according to which barbarians are not those who do not speak Greek, but those who do not speak Egyptian. At the same time, as Laurot has shown, Herodotos displays no interest in condemning barbarians as such, nor in subordinating them to Greeks. Rather, his presentation in the Histories of nomoi of the barbarian ‘other’ offers insights into the nomoi of the Greek ‘self’ (or better, ‘selves’), insofar as the various Greek nomoi constitute Herodotos’ principal frame of reference and benchmark. However, as Rosellini and Said valuably stress, Herodotos does not present the barbarian ‘other’ as a monolithic unity, any more than he presents the Greeks themselves as a unity: rather he ranges across the different nomoi that exist among barbarians and through the complexities of interaction between various barbarian peoples. The Histories are not so much a mirror, as Hartog would have it, but a hall of mirrors with multiple reflections. The key point is that in the Histories cultural differences, however profound they may be, are presented as secondary to a common human nature and a common human condition: in that sense too Greek is barbarian, ‘self’ is ‘other’. The categories of Greek and barbarian are familiar to Herodotos, but on his view, as the proem indicates, they need not entail the subordination of the barbarian, whose achievements are to be celebrated also. For Herodotos, it is humanness that is the natural identity and the group identity that matters, and man-made variations are merely contingent, for all their exotic character and interest. Confirmation of such a view of Herodotos may be found in the condemnatory response of Plutarch, for whom Herodotos is far too positive about barbarians. The ferocity of Plutarch’s response (indeed, his very decision to write a response at all) further indicates the strength of the challenge that Herodotos’ case presented to the smug asseverations of Greek specialness that seem to have developed through the fifth century and which Plutarch in his day assumed to be right and proper. Cross-cultural interaction was central to Herodotos’ project in the Histories. At the same time, the problematic nature of reciprocity the uncertainty that arises from its under-negotiation — is particularly apparent in interaction across cultures. Indeed, Herodotos’ concern with the problematics of reciprocity as a phenomenon can be seen as intimately bound up with his concern with cross-cultural interaction. Of course, Herodotos’ starting-point is a matter of mere speculation. But we can and should observe the organic relationship between cross-cultural interaction, crosscultural reciprocity, and the problematics of reciprocity as a phenomenon. It is precisely within the problematics of cross-cultural reciprocity that the appreciation of cultural relativism is particularly necessary. Therefore, if we move from the claim, already mentioned, that there is a strong sense in which the Histories are about reciprocity to ask why Herodotos should be so interested in the phenomenon, I would suggest that an answer is to be found not in the topicality of reciprocity as a theme in the later fifth century, but in the rationale of Herodotos’ very undertaking. A broadlybased treatment of the Persian Wars by its very nature invites a simultaneous and inherent treatment of reciprocity as a phenomenon. To examine societies is to explore forms of reciprocities. All the more so, when societies invite comparisons through their It also seems clear that Herodotus approached the task of describing manners and customs with a fairly definite idea of what constituted a culture, and a fairly specific set of questions for evoking details from informants. The criteria which separated one group from another and gave individuality to his descriptive portraits were common descent, common language, common religion, and the observance of like manners in the smaller details of living, such as dress, diet, and dwellings. The Argippeans, who lived at the foot of the Ural Mountains, were presented vividly as being bald from birth, speaking a language of their own, using no weapons, dispensing justice in the quarrels of their neighbors, and dressing after the manner of the Scythians. They lived on the juice of a species of cherry, making the lees into a solid cake which they ate instead of meat. They dwell each man,† he said, â€Å"under a tree, covering it in winter with a white felt cloth, but using no felt in summer. † For each group, in other words, seven categories of cultural fact are given. We are told their geographical location and something of their environment. We are told of their language, their dress, their food, their dwellings, their form of self-defense, or their lack of it, their prestige as judges among other peoples. On the other hand, concerning Egypt, one of the more important culture areas, Herodotus says at the outset that he will have to extend his remarks to some length. This country–its climate, its people and animals–was a constant surprise and challenge to the observer, very much as Japan with its customs and Australia with its fauna have challenged the modern traveller. For the Egyptians the number of cultural categories evoked far exceeds the seven used in describing the Argippeans. As for history, Bodin’s belief in its power to confer knowledge concerning the ways of mankind was unfaltering; and much of both the Methodus and the Republique is devoted to the assemblage of documentation to support this contention. Never before perhaps had a writer on politics or ethnography amassed so large a body of dated materials or laid so large a literature under tribute. He was well-read, not only in the law and the Bible, but in the Talmud and the Cabala; in the ancients, including Herodotus, Strabo, Cicero, Tacitus, and Caesar; in the modern historians, such as Joinville, Froissart, Monstrelet, Commines; and in the travelers, Marco Polo, Leo Africanus, and Las Casas. As they err, said he, â€Å"who study the maps of regions before they have learned accurately the relation of the whole universe and the separate parts to each other and to the whole, so they are not less mistaken who think they can understand particular histories before they have judged the order and sequence of universal history and of all times, set forth as it were in a table. †

Friday, November 8, 2019

Problems in Group Interaction and Ways to Overcome It Essays

Problems in Group Interaction and Ways to Overcome It Essays Problems in Group Interaction and Ways to Overcome It Essay Problems in Group Interaction and Ways to Overcome It Essay [pic] FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSION AND ASSESSMENT ____________________________________________________________ ____________ COURSE CODE : OUMH1303 COURSE TITLE : ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION SEMESTER : SEPTEMBER 2011 NAME OF STUDENT: EVA KOAY ASSIGNMENT TITLE: You are an employee of Softskills Training Consultant, a company which conducts soft skill training. You have been asked to give a speech entitled â€Å"Problems faced in group interaction and ways to overcome these problems† to the employees of Santander Bank. ___________________________________________________________ ____________ TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC PAGES |Index |Description |Page No. | |(1) |Introduction |1 | |1. 1 |What is Group Interaction? | | |1. 2 |The importance of learning skills | | |1. 2. 1 | | | |2. | | | |2. 1 | | | |2. 2 | | | |2. 3 | | | |2. 4 | | | |2. | | | |3. 0 | | | |3. 1 | | | |3. 2 | | | |3. 3 | | | |3. | | | |3. 5 | | | |4. 0 |C onclusion | | Good Afternoon , Dear Bankers, Ladies and Gentlemen, WELCOME TO THE TALK Today, the topic I am going to share with you is, â€Å"Problems faced in group interaction and ways to overcome these problems† 1) INTRODUCTION 1. 1 What is Group Interaction? How do we define ‘group’? Groups are commonly found in which people or working people are together to form a whole. Groups signify the collectivity of friends in circles, families, communities and co-workers. Groups are an essential part of our community life. As they can be in a small group of two or three people or in a large number of people. Groups that are interacting and interrelating with each other. Group interaction in general can be defined as a group of people interrelate and interact together to target the tasks or resolving conflict of issues at in order to reach a good understanding in communication, building team rapport and spirit. Organizations, school or societies which organize or form a group of students , committees or co-workers to interact and work together for any meetings, events or in any kind of discussions for the purpose of reaching a better understanding by discussing together in team to target the unsettling issues or to cater to any key tasks in their organizations. In order to reach a better understanding and interaction, it is good to have the groups to interact with good and effective skills, brainstorming and share experience, seek explanation and find solutions to resolve the issues together in order to obtain good decisions . . 2 The importance of learning skills The importance of learning skills determine the effectiveness of interaction in groups for an end result of attaining solution. Learning of interaction skills are important steps that enables the ability to speak comprehensibly and convincingly and to listen the needs and analyzing response of others, by exchanging ideas and shari ng of experiences. These are the fundamental skills in carrying out the knowledge of communication theory and process in interaction. . 3 How learning these skills will benefit your audience in order to work effectively in a group By learning up effectively in groups motivate us to ask and respond to each other, elaborate and support each other’s opinions, enunciate own thoughts, brainstorming and share experience to reflect own knowledge. A member of the groups in general will open up the discussion issues, suggests the members to provide their ideas and opinions, seek explanation and find solutions to resolve the issues. Discussions would conclude well if the whole process of group interaction is managed well. Active group participation will also benefit the members of the group in building team spirit. Nevertheless, the benefits of group interaction would very much depend on the well managed teams and their cooperation. Besides, learning the skills will help the group to be more productive and completed their tasks effectively. Effective skills will help the group to generate and develop a good and effective interaction. 1. 3. 1 Instill individual responsibility and accountability Effective skills will help to instill individual responsibility and accountability as groups will reach an understanding in what they need to do, what are the next steps to carry out and how would they complete within the deadline, each of them hold responsibility and accountable for their own tasks. 1. 3. 2 Positive feedback Focusing and listening well on people’s ideas and comments in one the skills in interaction which help the group members to receive and provide feedback about others’ opinions, questioning of doubts. This will help to open up the members for improvement. Problem solving: Group members help the group to develop and use strategies central to their group goals. As such, they can facilitate group decision making and deal productively with conflict. In extreme cases, they know when to approach the professor for additional advice and help. Management and organization: Group members know how to plan and manage a task, how to manage their time, and how to run a meeting. For example, they ensure that meeting goals are set, that an agenda is created and followed, and that everyone has an opportunity to participate. They stay focused on the task and help others to do so too. Knowledge of roles: Group members know which roles can be filled within a group (e. g. , facilitator, idea-generator, summarizer, evaluator, mediator, encourager, recorder) and are aware of which role(s) they and others are best suited for. They are also willing to rotate roles to maximize their own and others’ group learning experience. â€Å"This paper presents a model of collaborative learning designed to help an intelligent collaborative learning system identify and target group interaction problem areas. The model describes potential indicators of effective collaborative learning, and for each indicator, recommends strategies for improving peer interaction. This collaborative learning model drove the design and development of two tools that automate the coding, and aid the analysis of collaborative learning conversation and activity. Empirical evaluation of these tools confirm that effective learning teams are comprised of active participants who demand explanations and justification from their peers. The distribution of conversational skills used by members of a supportive group committed to their teammates learning is compared to that of an unfocused, unsupportive group. The results suggest that structured, high-level knowledge of student conversation in context may be sufficient for automating the assessment of group interaction, furthering the possibility of an intelligent collaborative learning system that can support and enhance the group learning process. † |Available: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) 12 (2001) 40-62 | |(http://aied. nf. ed. ac. uk/members01/archive/vol_12/soller/full. html) | |Learning Research and Development Center (LRDC), University of Pittsburgh. | |[| |p| |i| |c| |]| â€Å"To function successfully in a small group, students need to be able to communicate clearly on intellectual and emotional levels. Effective communicators: * can explain their own ideas * express their feelings in an open but non-threateni ng way * listen carefully to others ask questions to clarify others’ ideas and emotions * can sense how others feel based on their nonverbal communication * will initiate conversations about group climate or process if they sense tensions brewing * reflect on the activities and interactions of their group and encourage other group members to do so as well â€Å"Regular open communication, in which group members share their thoughts, ideas, and feelings, is a must for successful group work. Unspoken assumptions and issues can be very destructive to productive group functioning. When students are willing to communicate openly with one another, a healthy climate will emerge and an effective process can be followed. † â€Å"Skills for a Healthy Group Climate To work together successfully, group members must demonstrate a sense of cohesion. Cohesion emerges as group members exhibit the following skills: * Openness: Group members are willing to get to know one another, particularly those with different interests and backgrounds. They are open to new ideas, diverse viewpoints, and the variety of individuals present within the group. They listen to others and elicit their ideas. They know how to balance the need for cohesion within a group with the need for individual expression. # Trust and self-disclosure: Group members trust one another enough to share their own ideas and feelings. A sense of mutual trust develops only to the extent that everyone is willing to self-disclose and be honest yet respectful. Trust also grows as group members demonstrate personal accountability for the tasks they have been assigned. # Support: Group members demonstrate support for one another as they accomplish their goals. They exemplify a sense of team loyalty and both cheer on the group as a whole and help members who are experiencing difficulties. They view one another not as competitors (which is common within a typically individualistic educational system) but as collaborators. # Respect: Group members communicate their opinions in a way that respects others, focusing on â€Å"What can we learn? † rather than â€Å"Who is to blame? † See Constructive Feedback in the process section for more details. † Available: (Online)http://cte. uwaterloo. ca/teaching_resources/tips/teamwork_skills. html Individual responsibility and accountability: All group members agree on what needs to be done and by whom. Each student then determines what he or she needs to do and takes responsibility to complete the task(s). They can be held accountable for their tasks, and they hold others accountable for theirs. Constructive Feedback: Group members are able to give and receive feedback about group id eas. Giving constructive feedback requires focusing on ideas and behaviours, instead of individuals, being as positive as possible, and offering suggestions for improvement. Receiving feedback requires listening well, asking for clarification if the comment is unclear, and being open to change and other ideas. Problem solving: Group members help the group to develop and use strategies central to their group goals. As such, they can facilitate group decision making and deal productively with conflict. In extreme cases, they know when to approach the professor for additional advice and help. Management and organization: Group members know how to plan and manage a task, how to manage their time, and how to run a meeting. For example, they ensure that meeting goals are set, that an agenda is created and followed, and that everyone has an opportunity to participate. They stay focused on the task and help others to do so too. Knowledge of roles: Group members know which roles can be filled within a group (e. g. , facilitator, idea-generator, summarizer, evaluator, mediator, encourager, recorder) and are aware of which role(s) they and others are best suited for. They are also willing to rotate roles to maximize their own and others’ group learning experience. As an instructor, use some of these strategies to encourage students to develop an effective process within their small groups: Design the group task so that the students must work together. Group members will be more motivated and committed to working together if they are given a group mark; if you choose to evaluate in this way, be sure to make your expectations extremely clear. See the CTE Teaching Tip sheet â€Å"Methods for Assessing Group Work† for additional ideas. Once students are in groups, have them develop, as one of their early assignments, a group contract in which they articulate ground rules and group goals. See Teaching Tips â€Å"Making Group Contracts† for details. Be sure that groups discuss how they will respond to various scenarios such as absentee or late group members and those who do not complete their assigned tasks. Distribute a list of decision-making methods and strategies for conflict resolution. The CTE Teaching Tip sheet â€Å"Group Decision Making† is a good place to start. Have each group articulate, based on this list, a set of strategies for decision making and conflict resolution; this list should become part of the group contract. You may also want to offer yourself as an impartial arbitrator in emergency situations, but encourage students to work out problems among themselves. Provide students with guidelines for running a meeting, such as setting and following an agenda, specifying time limits, and monitoring progress on the agenda. Consult the CTE Teaching Tip sheet â€Å"Meeting Strategies to Help Prepare Students for Group Work† for additional suggestions. Teach students effective methods for giving and receiving feedback. For sample methods, see Teaching Tips â€Å"Receiving and Giving Effective Feedback. Create an assignment that involves them giving feedback to group members, and make it part of their final grade. To help students recognize and make the most of their own and one another’s preferred roles, outline with them a list of team roles (see Teaching Tips â€Å"Group Roles† for one such list), have them determine which role(s) suits them best, and give them time to discuss within their groups how their particular role(s) will complement those of other group members. Requiring them to rotate their roles helps them to expand their skills set. 2. 0Problems faced in group interaction

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Free Essays on The Last Day Of High School

The Last Day of High School The last day of my high school career is fast approaching and I can only imagine how I'll be feeling when I step out of Palisade H.S. grounds for the very last time. Throughout these four years, I have felt a lot of urgency about graduating high school. I didn't think that the time to graduate would come soon enough. But now, that time is finally nearing. I cannot believe that it has come this fast. I remember my first days of high school. I was just dying to experience all the new and exciting things that awaited me. From sports to girls to all the partying, I just wanted to know what everything was like. And now that I've done all those things and many more, I am about to embark on a new adventure that will take me to many more new experiences. Some say that "high school was the best time of my life", just like others say that high school was the worst time in their lives. To be honest, I am not sure which category I fall into. I've had plenty of good times, as well as just as many bad times, in high school. The only thing I can say is that I learned. And the most important thing is that, not just that I learned through the books, but I learned about life and the road ahead of me. From being an inexperienced freshman to a somewhat mature senior, things have really changed for me. I started high school as a brash and cocky athlete, dying to conquer the world, which I did not know much about. I will leave high school as a world-weary senior, knowing that there are many dangers to encounter in the real world. Realistically, I do not know what the world out there holds for me. All I can do is enter it with a guarded optimism and hope for the best.... Free Essays on The Last Day Of High School Free Essays on The Last Day Of High School The Last Day of High School The last day of my high school career is fast approaching and I can only imagine how I'll be feeling when I step out of Palisade H.S. grounds for the very last time. Throughout these four years, I have felt a lot of urgency about graduating high school. I didn't think that the time to graduate would come soon enough. But now, that time is finally nearing. I cannot believe that it has come this fast. I remember my first days of high school. I was just dying to experience all the new and exciting things that awaited me. From sports to girls to all the partying, I just wanted to know what everything was like. And now that I've done all those things and many more, I am about to embark on a new adventure that will take me to many more new experiences. Some say that "high school was the best time of my life", just like others say that high school was the worst time in their lives. To be honest, I am not sure which category I fall into. I've had plenty of good times, as well as just as many bad times, in high school. The only thing I can say is that I learned. And the most important thing is that, not just that I learned through the books, but I learned about life and the road ahead of me. From being an inexperienced freshman to a somewhat mature senior, things have really changed for me. I started high school as a brash and cocky athlete, dying to conquer the world, which I did not know much about. I will leave high school as a world-weary senior, knowing that there are many dangers to encounter in the real world. Realistically, I do not know what the world out there holds for me. All I can do is enter it with a guarded optimism and hope for the best....

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Organ donation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Organ donation - Research Paper Example The society is divided in two with regard to this issue. On the one hand, there are people who claim that it is a positive practice that brings a considerable number of positive consequences. On the other hand, the opponents of the above mentioned approach point out various personal as well as religious reasons why people should not perform it. In this essay, I will claim that organ donation is a positive phenomenon that saves lives, contributes to the improvement of the society and helps the families in various ways. To begin with, one should focus on the most positive as well as undeniable advantage of the practice in question: it is literally capable of saving lives of the people. Keeping in mind that being alive should be regarded as the most precious gift that a person is able to receive, there is no doubt that if one is capable to giving it, one should not hesitate for a moment. Indeed, not so many actions that are performed by people have such a positive outcome. Another point that should be mentioned with this regard is that a person does not only save one life by donating organ, but up to eight ("Donate Life Month"). In other words, a single person can help many other individuals and grant them a second chance. It is clear that every day all over the country people die; so, if they all donate their organs that every day eight times more people will be saved. This is surely a positive trend for the society in general. The significance of saving lives of citizens in obvious: it does not on ly allow particular families to be with their relatively longer, but it also strengthens the country in general as there will be more people who will work and contribute to prosperity. Moreover, it will reflect the spirit of value of every single life. The next positive aspect about organ donation that should be taken in close consideration is the fact that it contributes to formation of an effective framework within the

Friday, November 1, 2019

Adults learn best when learning by and from experience Essay

Adults learn best when learning by and from experience - Essay Example Witt, 2003; Manning, 2003; Michelson, 1996; Wilhelm, 1997). The child is a professional learner and his/her life revolves around school attendance and study, to the degree that learning may be defined as the child's foremost priority and responsibility. The situation is entirely different where the adult learner is concerned, with career and familial responsibilities functioning as the foremost priorities and study/learning, a secondary concern which may even be resented insofar as it impinges upon the adult's free time or the attention he wants to direct towards his other concerns (DeWitt, 2003; Manning, 2003; Michelson, 1996; Wilhelm, 1997). The articulated differential between adult and child learners has given rise to an entire body of literature on adult learning and teaching approaches and strategies. Each of the theories or learning strategies proposed for employment with adult learners is validated by a wealth of empirical evidence but, educational psychologists have incontro vertibly established experiential learning to be the optimal learning strategy vis--vis adults. Through a discursive analysis of this particular learning theory, its application s and outcomes, concomitant with a subjective experiential overview, the essay shall affirm the utility of this teaching-learning approach and argue that its strength primarily emanates from the fact that it embraces the principles of variant learning-teaching theories but maintains that assimilation of the learnt can only occur pending practice an application. However, rather than simply proceed from the assumption that adults learn best when they learn from, by and through experience, the essay shall first overview the scholarship of learning, present the variant and more popular of the learning theories and argue that even though each is inherently valid, experiential learning remains the most effect vis--vis the adult student both because it embraces the major precepts and teaching strategies presented b y those theories and extends beyond their confines. Nevertheless, and as the argument shall highlight, irrespective of the learning theory that a tutor selects, if the aim is to create a dynamic and constructive learning environment, characterised by efficient and effective learning, the tutor must integrate elements of the experiential learning theory into his/her teaching style, especially as pertains to learning from, by and through experience. The Scholarship of Learning Learning theories abound and rose in concomitance with the evolution of psychology and formalised educational systems. The primary aim of the aforementioned theories, as Ehreman and Oxford (1990) explain was the development of the ideal learning and teaching strategy. In immediate comparison, the scholarship of learning and teaching is a recent pedagogical development. Defined by Kreber and Cranton (2000) as the systemisation of academic inquiry and research into the most effective, or ideal teaching and learning

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The making of a Strong Leader Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The making of a Strong Leader - Research Paper Example O’Leary took the helms of leadership in 1994 when the airline was just tying to wake up from a long slumber and a performance downward trend that had seen it make a huge loss four years earlier (Ruddock 2008). Massive restructuring was in force as a result of continued poor performance. O’Leary therefore had a difficult time ahead of him but today he can boast of transforming Ryanair into one of the most profitable airlines in the world with tremendous growth prospects. He seems to have mastered the adaptability skill in his leadership. He took the company when it was at one of its worst moments and steered it to success. This means that he was able to identify with the bad times and above all understand the complexities. He has all along made changes with the times more so in the competitive arena. When other airlines reduce their fares, Ryanair reduces theirs even lower (Ruddock 2008). He has good people skills that enable him to sell his ideas in a simple and yet touching manner. He is on the forefront in advertising where he introduces almost all their new products. He is also a good negotiator with the employees’ union as they usually come to compromise without much loss to either party. He has good sense of self awareness such that he quite well knows how people perceive his leadership style. As much as the airline has been successful, many have not come to appreciate his way of doing things especially the cost cutting measures towards the staff. He is also decisive and makes relatively good and timely judgments. In the many times he has been faced with challenges e.g. a court case, he argues the company’s case with desirable wit. O’Leary is also purposeful in his strategies as he tries to maintain the airline as the best in the low-cost and low-fares category which he has achieved marvelously so far. He is also quite innovative and creative in strategizing. He has notably provoked free publicity through

Monday, October 28, 2019

Deontology Definition Essay Example for Free

Deontology Definition Essay Whilst Deontology has its attractions it fails to provide a reliable foundation for moral decision making Examine and evaluate this claim (30) Deontology is based upon the actions of a person, not the consequences. The word deontology is derived from the Greek word deontos. It was developed by Immanuel Kant and it is an absolutist a priori theory, the phrase a priori means it is knowable through experience and absolutist means there are fixed rules that cannot be changed. This means Kant believed the duty of the moral law was unchangeable and through experience, if everyone followed these rules the world would be a better place. Immanuel Kant wrote Critique of Pure reason in this book he devised his deontological theory of duty. He believed it is the duty of one to follow the moral law and not judge situations with feelings, inclination, love and compassion. Kant also believed that all humans seek for summum bonum which is the state when all human virtue and happiness are united. To help people on their way to moral decision Immanuel Kant devised the categorical imperative, this is in contrast to the hypothetical imperative. The hypothetical imperative normally starts sentence with an if e.g. if you wish to complete a good essay you must spend time on it, where as a categorical imperative tells you that you should do something, e.g. you should brush your teeth in the morning. This then was devised into three different rules on how to live your life; The Universal Law, Treat Humans as Ends in Themselves and Act as if you live in a Kingdom of Ends. Kants second principle in the categorical imperative, So act that you treat humanity, both in your own person and in the person of every other human being, never merely as a means, but always at the same time as an end This shows that it could be an attractive theory as it has good intentions in mind. Like many theories, Deontology has its strengths and weaknesses. One of its main strengths is that it is an absolutist theory. This means it is either intrinsically good or bad, e.g. do not commit murder. This is a major strength as it makes an easy theory people to follow. This may attract people towards the theory as it shows guidelines to follow which some people may rely on to make their moral decision making. Another reason why it may attract people is because the rules are fixed so they do not have to question the rules whether they are right or wrong them just have to obey them keeping them in a comfortable position. This makes the theory practical in everyday use and people can depend upon the theory also there is no need to do any calculations. However there are many conflicting views to this strength. One of them is how people can become dependant on the theory. If they become to dependant upon the theory and it does not help them in a situation on moral decision making they may struggle to think of what to do next. WD Ross devised the notion of prima facie duties, this means first appearance. This is when we follow our duty unless there is an overriding obligation, e.g. telling a white lie to make someone feel good about them self. This goes against the principle of duty as you must not lie but you could argue that you will feel morally good about yourself if you make another person feel good. Therefore this does not help is moral decision making as you have conflicting duties. Strength to this theory is that justice is always the absolute. This means only intrinsically right actions are accounted for. This can be seen with Kants statement of good will. it is impossible to conceive of anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except good will. This shows that only good will is the only good we can achieve from the world. By justice being an absolute it means that you cannot justify immoral actions. This is attractive because it shows that by following this theory you will not act unmorally and you will be able to reach that summum bonum as you are fulfilled with good deeds. By not being able to do any intrinsically bad actions this will make people feel it is a reliable theory because if you follow these set rules you will not harm another person. Although it seeks justice, it does not seek the best interest of the majority, this means the minority may feel that justice has been done but on the other hand the majority may feel that justice has not been served. Personally I feel by pleasing the majority I will end up with a better outcome because there will greater happiness, this links in with Utilitarianism and the greatest pleasure over the greatest pain. Another reason why this theory has its flaws is the summum bonum. The summum bonum is the ultimate fulfilment but it can only be achieved by having an immortal soul as it cannot be achieved in the lifetime. This shows links with religion, even though Kant rejected theological arguments with the existence of God. This strikes a problem because not everyone believes in God so how could you follow the theory if you do not believe in his existence. Finally it is to legalistic because it assumes everyone is a law abiding person, people have different intentions so by assuming everyone has the intention of justice is wrong. To see whether is really does fail these reliabilities; we have to compare the strengths with the weaknesses. A weakness to the theory is that there are no limits to what can be universalised. This is because in one persons state of mind something may seem perfectly fine to another persons state of mind, e.g. a chronically depressed person. They may feel suicide is perfectly acceptable. This links in with the first law of the categorical imperative Do not act on any principle that cannot be universalised. This means moral laws should be taken into account into all situations. Again this is wrong because who is to say one right action is another persons right action, this makes it very unreliable with moral decision making. However if you take into account what the majority feel is wrong or right you could come to a conclusion on universal rules. This can be seen with rules such as do not commit murder as most people do not tolerate that and it is safe to say they do not agree with it. Finally another weakness is that Immanuel Kant starts to argue now is to be done but what ought to be done, this is known as the Naturalistic Fallacy. This is a weakness because it makes people feel as he is in control and he is telling what should and shouldnt be done. This is a weakness because Kant has different agreement on morals to another agreement, again he is assuming the masses will agree with this method making unreliable. By Kant saying what ought to be done he is showing what he feels is intrinsically good and that may vary from another. On the other hand by Kant saying he ought instead of is, it shows he is laying down ground rules and some people may like this as they will have rules to follow making it a attractive and reliable moral decision making theory.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

High School Curriculum :: Education Argumentative Persuasive Papers

High School Curriculum When reviewing the literature regarding the past, present and future of educational curriculum, several main points seem apparent, namely that curriculum is cyclical, that a dilemma or paradox exists, and that curriculum must be looked at with a sensitive view. According to Lashway (1999) educators once saw educational reform as cyclical. Every ten years or so one could expect a public outburst followed by frantic efforts to mend a broken system. However, in the last twenty years there seems to have been a perpetual reform. Looking to the past it seems that curriculum became diluted. Schools offered many electives; schools even watered down the curriculum hoping to â€Å"keep† students (which was later found to only compound the problem) (Mclaughlin 1990). Curriculum resembled a lawn sprinkler covering a lot of area yet having very little force. In the 1980’s a report called â€Å"A Nation At Risk† stated that American children had fallen behind in such subjects as math and science. Thus came the advent of education’s increased focus on literacy and numeracy, accountability and academic standards. These high standards, according to Dumas (2000), are the most significant trend in schools today. These new standards seem to be focusing more on both accountability and back to basics. As a math teacher I can be delighted by this focus. However, as a potential administrator, I realize this is too myopic a view. Indeed these standards have created a dilemma -- a conundrum -- a paradox. Back to basics? BUT these basics must be taught differently, by stressing higher level thinking and life/work appreciation. Additionally, all children must be taught, be they rich, poor, learning disabled, foreign speakers etc. Cut frills but be creative Do not forget educating the â€Å"whole† child. Do well on standardized test while remembering and accounting for fewer standardized kids. Be literate and professional but as pointed out in numerous articles, care, and be a good moral person. Additionally include character education for students. This has led some educators to express reservations about these current trends, mostly because of fears that reform will be driven by conformity to policy mandates rather than the educational needs of children. John Goodlad (1999) observes, â€Å"The language of school reform virtually eschews reference to the measuring of self, civility, civic-mindedness, democratic character and participation in the whole of the human conservation.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Hollywood main stream cinema’s treatment of gender in the 1980’s Essay

To what extent is Rambo: First Blood Part 2 typical of Hollywood mainstream cinema’s treatment of gender in the 1980’s? Action films in the 1980’s reflected the changes and insecurity’s within American society. There had been a rise in feminism meaning that the masculine form and dominance was being undermined and white working class males did not know where their place was in society. It was also in the immediate time after the Vietnam War and confusion and anger still lingered. The Vietnam War divided the American nation as a whole because, as it has been in recent times with the war in Iraq, people didn’t fully understand why America needed to impose their presence in a country where they felt they had nothing to gain. The action film in the 1980’s introduced a hero that differentiated masculinity and femininity using the form of the body as a way of ensuring power, dominance and self-respect. Rambo: First Blood Part 2 is a typical film of this era in terms of masculinity and the ways in which men and women are portrayed. In the film Rambo: First Blood Part 2 Sylvester Stallone portrays a typical action hero of the ‘war film’ genre in the 1980’s but also an outcast of society after the Vietnam War. He is a veteran of Vietnam and came home to find that everything he had known had changed and he was no longer considered an honourable soldier but more as a war criminal. Rambo’s mission in this film is to go back to Vietnam and see if he can find a camp that he is told has many POW’s. If he finds the men, he can only take photographs but he has a problem with this and risks his own life to save them. He is very strong and muscular and is able to defeat the soldiers, Russian and Vietnamese, single handed. Douglas Kellner states that the film; ‘Follows the conventions of the Hollywood genre of the â€Å"war film†, which dramatizes conflicts between the United States and its â€Å"enemies† and provides a happy ending that portrays the victory of good over evil.’ (Kellner, 1994, p.10) This means that America always won no matter who the enemy was. In reality this is something that America could not accomplish. There was no happy ending and there were no immediate heroes. Rambo is allowed to bring glory upon America and diffuse a situation that could have cost the American military even more respect and dignity. America had lost some of its power within the world and they strived to get it back. It had lost its first war and it had become important to remasculinize America. There was a growing fear of communism in the country and displaying male heroes which went against the communist regime was their idea of establishing the ideal throughout the world by a means of globalization. Globalization had been taking place throughout the history of cinema by a means of film that was imported and exported to places around the world. In effect most of the action films set in Vietnam, and other films which hold a strong view of patriotism and heroism within America in the 1980’s, can be seen as propaganda films against the rise of communism. The purpose, with or without the knowledge of the audience, was to get the idea across to a mass audience that communism was against the principles of the country. In Rambo the ‘evil’ characters are the Vietnamese and Russian soldiers and ironically, it turns out that the greatest threat to Rambo is not the Vietnamese, although they do pose a strong force, it is the Russians. The Russians are shown as being extremely strong, relentless, and willing to put a man through torture to get what they want. Nevertheless, whatever the Russians do you cannot beat a man with as much physical and mental strength as Rambo. This follows a pattern throughout action films in the 1980’s. One film that is suggestive of this is Rocky 4. Rocky 4 (1985) also stars Sylvester Stallone but this time he is a boxer. He is fighting against a strong Russian fighter named Ivan Drago. Drago is very tough and stands at over 6ft tall. The Russian crowd all stand behind their fighter but when the final fight is over and Rocky defeats him with all of his strength the Russians begin to show support for Rocky and boo their fighter. This is the film industry’s way of evoking patriotism and the ever-growing fear of the communist regime after the Cold War. Philip L. Gianos states that; ‘The advent of Vietnam in film provided an opportunity for filmmakers who were denied an actual shooting war: a parallel, surrogate setting in which cold war themes could be played out.’ (Gianos. 1998, P.159) The first response from the film industry during this time was a set of anti-communist films to respond to the changing political environment. The villains are almost always portrayed as foreign internationals such as Russian, German, and sometimes English and they are usually a communist operative. They are never American in these films because the hero is American. He is fighting for his country and if it were another American he is fighting against he is effectively fighting against America. Other action films that were released at that time include, The Terminator, Rocky, Predator, and Die Hard. Millions of people worldwide, mainly consisting of young males went to see these films at the cinema. They gave them a chance to ‘latch on to big, muscular, violent men as cinematic heroes.’ (Katz, 1994, p134) These heroes gave the audience the chance to gain self-respect and security as it represented a masculinity that was unaffected by the rise of feminism. Gender roles had been reversed due to the growing rise of a feminist movement that showed women were increasingly moving into the workplace rather than staying at home. The displaying of the male physique and the physical torture it goes through to enable glory and victory over evil is further suggestive of masculinity in crisis and the gain of global respect. Women could not gain this kind of respect because they could not attain that degree of physical strength and endurance so therefore this was one thing that they couldn’t take away from men. The female role in the action film of the 1980’s appears at first glance to be on equal footing with the male. However, there are some differences in the ways in which they go about their missions. In Rambo: First Blood Part 2 the main female character, Co Bao, is strong, resourceful and a very capable fighter. She is Rambo’s contact in Vietnam and later becomes his love interest. During the film she cautions Rambo to follow his orders and when she goes to save him from the Russian’s in the POW camp she uses a different technique than Rambo. While Rambo attacked her captor from behind and overpowered him she sneaked into the camp as a prostitute. Therefore the issue of strength and power is present in the male character but in the female character it is more about subtlety and intelligence. Rambo is the definitive male of 80’s cinema and was joined by characters such as John McLain (Die Hard) and Rocky Balboa (Rocky). In these films the main action centres around one hero and the female character is usually the love-interest or accomplice. In previous war/actions films and Vietnam films the veterans were seen as either psychopaths, such as Travis Bickle in Taxi Driver, or tragic characters, Bob Hyde in Coming Home. In the films of the 1980’s, however, the hero fights back. In Rambo Part 2 Rambo can be seen as an anti-hero because of his rebellious behaviour by going against his orders to leave the POW’s and by telling Murdock that he will come and get him when he gets back from the jungle. This makes his character more dangerous and exciting to the audience as you don’t know what he is going to do. He has many people after him in Vietnam but he also has enemies at home. He has to deal with ‘home-grown discrimination’ because of the war and in effect he is no longer fighting for his country. He is doing it for the comrades that he fought with; ‘In these films the enemy is not the enemy in a war that is officially over but rather the civilian and military leadership that failed to win the war’ (Gianos. 1998, p.166) After Co Bao is killed Rambo channels his emotions into retaliation and thus becomes a fighting machine that is only out for revenge. Before she was killed he was ready to leave after finding that Murdock sent him out just to get free of him and stem reports that there were POW’s still in Vietnam. The style of the film helps to build the perception that he is a ‘god’ and that he is invincible. The use of lighting and camera angles are used to enhance his physique and the fast paced editing in the action shots are used to show that he is fast, strong and practical in the ways he attacks his enemies. Rambo shows us the ideal, very well-built muscular body of the white male in a place where he appears to belong. Commonly used iconography for Vietnam films included dense jungle, camouflage equipment and hi-tech weaponry. He uses the jungle to an advantage and appears to know it better than those who live there. He uses his initiative and intelligence in the jungle and is able to use it to gain the upper hand in a battle. One example of this is the scene in which he attacks a US soldier after he hides in a bank of mud with his eyes being the only thing visible. The male body in these films ‘constructs the white man as physically superior, yet also an everyman, built to do the job of colonial world improvement’ (Dyer, 2002, p.269) The fact that the superior build of the hero’s body establishes him as an everyman means that it is something that any man can attain – as long as you are white. Black men are rarely portrayed in this manner and if they are they are usually the villains of the movie and end up being defeated. In conclusion, the gender representation in the film is an effort from the United States to fulfil the growing need of remasculinizing American society, in particularly, in the dominant white majority of the working class. With the rise of feminism, fear of communism, political scandals and the Vietnam War, it became imperative for America to try and rebuild the image of men in a positive light. Rather than focusing on men as a collective these films focused on one individual and therefore a view of machismo, strength and determination became the ‘norm’. The films of the 1980’s became a kind of vessel of the ideal and most of these films are still popular in today’s society and may still be what some men aspire to be. If you were like these men you were considered to be manly and if you weren’t you were understood to be weak and not the ‘typical’ American male. The male hero in these films was put there to win. America needed a hero and they found him in these films. The masculine form was in crisis and the wholesomeness and fearless heroes could make an impact on the male audience who would then seek to be like the characters they watched on screen. Bibliography Gianos P.L (1998) Politics and Politicians in American Film, London, Greenwood Press Dyer, R, (2002) The White Man’s Muscles in Adams. R and Savran. D (eds) (2002) The Masculinity Studies Reader Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Jeffords S. (1989) The Remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam War Indianapolis and Bloomington, Indiana University Press Kellner D. and Katz. J (1994) in Dines G and Humez J.M (eds) (1994) Gender, Race and Class in Media London, Sage Publications