Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The making of a Strong Leader Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The making of a Strong Leader - Research Paper Example O’Leary took the helms of leadership in 1994 when the airline was just tying to wake up from a long slumber and a performance downward trend that had seen it make a huge loss four years earlier (Ruddock 2008). Massive restructuring was in force as a result of continued poor performance. O’Leary therefore had a difficult time ahead of him but today he can boast of transforming Ryanair into one of the most profitable airlines in the world with tremendous growth prospects. He seems to have mastered the adaptability skill in his leadership. He took the company when it was at one of its worst moments and steered it to success. This means that he was able to identify with the bad times and above all understand the complexities. He has all along made changes with the times more so in the competitive arena. When other airlines reduce their fares, Ryanair reduces theirs even lower (Ruddock 2008). He has good people skills that enable him to sell his ideas in a simple and yet touching manner. He is on the forefront in advertising where he introduces almost all their new products. He is also a good negotiator with the employees’ union as they usually come to compromise without much loss to either party. He has good sense of self awareness such that he quite well knows how people perceive his leadership style. As much as the airline has been successful, many have not come to appreciate his way of doing things especially the cost cutting measures towards the staff. He is also decisive and makes relatively good and timely judgments. In the many times he has been faced with challenges e.g. a court case, he argues the company’s case with desirable wit. O’Leary is also purposeful in his strategies as he tries to maintain the airline as the best in the low-cost and low-fares category which he has achieved marvelously so far. He is also quite innovative and creative in strategizing. He has notably provoked free publicity through

Monday, October 28, 2019

Deontology Definition Essay Example for Free

Deontology Definition Essay Whilst Deontology has its attractions it fails to provide a reliable foundation for moral decision making Examine and evaluate this claim (30) Deontology is based upon the actions of a person, not the consequences. The word deontology is derived from the Greek word deontos. It was developed by Immanuel Kant and it is an absolutist a priori theory, the phrase a priori means it is knowable through experience and absolutist means there are fixed rules that cannot be changed. This means Kant believed the duty of the moral law was unchangeable and through experience, if everyone followed these rules the world would be a better place. Immanuel Kant wrote Critique of Pure reason in this book he devised his deontological theory of duty. He believed it is the duty of one to follow the moral law and not judge situations with feelings, inclination, love and compassion. Kant also believed that all humans seek for summum bonum which is the state when all human virtue and happiness are united. To help people on their way to moral decision Immanuel Kant devised the categorical imperative, this is in contrast to the hypothetical imperative. The hypothetical imperative normally starts sentence with an if e.g. if you wish to complete a good essay you must spend time on it, where as a categorical imperative tells you that you should do something, e.g. you should brush your teeth in the morning. This then was devised into three different rules on how to live your life; The Universal Law, Treat Humans as Ends in Themselves and Act as if you live in a Kingdom of Ends. Kants second principle in the categorical imperative, So act that you treat humanity, both in your own person and in the person of every other human being, never merely as a means, but always at the same time as an end This shows that it could be an attractive theory as it has good intentions in mind. Like many theories, Deontology has its strengths and weaknesses. One of its main strengths is that it is an absolutist theory. This means it is either intrinsically good or bad, e.g. do not commit murder. This is a major strength as it makes an easy theory people to follow. This may attract people towards the theory as it shows guidelines to follow which some people may rely on to make their moral decision making. Another reason why it may attract people is because the rules are fixed so they do not have to question the rules whether they are right or wrong them just have to obey them keeping them in a comfortable position. This makes the theory practical in everyday use and people can depend upon the theory also there is no need to do any calculations. However there are many conflicting views to this strength. One of them is how people can become dependant on the theory. If they become to dependant upon the theory and it does not help them in a situation on moral decision making they may struggle to think of what to do next. WD Ross devised the notion of prima facie duties, this means first appearance. This is when we follow our duty unless there is an overriding obligation, e.g. telling a white lie to make someone feel good about them self. This goes against the principle of duty as you must not lie but you could argue that you will feel morally good about yourself if you make another person feel good. Therefore this does not help is moral decision making as you have conflicting duties. Strength to this theory is that justice is always the absolute. This means only intrinsically right actions are accounted for. This can be seen with Kants statement of good will. it is impossible to conceive of anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except good will. This shows that only good will is the only good we can achieve from the world. By justice being an absolute it means that you cannot justify immoral actions. This is attractive because it shows that by following this theory you will not act unmorally and you will be able to reach that summum bonum as you are fulfilled with good deeds. By not being able to do any intrinsically bad actions this will make people feel it is a reliable theory because if you follow these set rules you will not harm another person. Although it seeks justice, it does not seek the best interest of the majority, this means the minority may feel that justice has been done but on the other hand the majority may feel that justice has not been served. Personally I feel by pleasing the majority I will end up with a better outcome because there will greater happiness, this links in with Utilitarianism and the greatest pleasure over the greatest pain. Another reason why this theory has its flaws is the summum bonum. The summum bonum is the ultimate fulfilment but it can only be achieved by having an immortal soul as it cannot be achieved in the lifetime. This shows links with religion, even though Kant rejected theological arguments with the existence of God. This strikes a problem because not everyone believes in God so how could you follow the theory if you do not believe in his existence. Finally it is to legalistic because it assumes everyone is a law abiding person, people have different intentions so by assuming everyone has the intention of justice is wrong. To see whether is really does fail these reliabilities; we have to compare the strengths with the weaknesses. A weakness to the theory is that there are no limits to what can be universalised. This is because in one persons state of mind something may seem perfectly fine to another persons state of mind, e.g. a chronically depressed person. They may feel suicide is perfectly acceptable. This links in with the first law of the categorical imperative Do not act on any principle that cannot be universalised. This means moral laws should be taken into account into all situations. Again this is wrong because who is to say one right action is another persons right action, this makes it very unreliable with moral decision making. However if you take into account what the majority feel is wrong or right you could come to a conclusion on universal rules. This can be seen with rules such as do not commit murder as most people do not tolerate that and it is safe to say they do not agree with it. Finally another weakness is that Immanuel Kant starts to argue now is to be done but what ought to be done, this is known as the Naturalistic Fallacy. This is a weakness because it makes people feel as he is in control and he is telling what should and shouldnt be done. This is a weakness because Kant has different agreement on morals to another agreement, again he is assuming the masses will agree with this method making unreliable. By Kant saying what ought to be done he is showing what he feels is intrinsically good and that may vary from another. On the other hand by Kant saying he ought instead of is, it shows he is laying down ground rules and some people may like this as they will have rules to follow making it a attractive and reliable moral decision making theory.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

High School Curriculum :: Education Argumentative Persuasive Papers

High School Curriculum When reviewing the literature regarding the past, present and future of educational curriculum, several main points seem apparent, namely that curriculum is cyclical, that a dilemma or paradox exists, and that curriculum must be looked at with a sensitive view. According to Lashway (1999) educators once saw educational reform as cyclical. Every ten years or so one could expect a public outburst followed by frantic efforts to mend a broken system. However, in the last twenty years there seems to have been a perpetual reform. Looking to the past it seems that curriculum became diluted. Schools offered many electives; schools even watered down the curriculum hoping to â€Å"keep† students (which was later found to only compound the problem) (Mclaughlin 1990). Curriculum resembled a lawn sprinkler covering a lot of area yet having very little force. In the 1980’s a report called â€Å"A Nation At Risk† stated that American children had fallen behind in such subjects as math and science. Thus came the advent of education’s increased focus on literacy and numeracy, accountability and academic standards. These high standards, according to Dumas (2000), are the most significant trend in schools today. These new standards seem to be focusing more on both accountability and back to basics. As a math teacher I can be delighted by this focus. However, as a potential administrator, I realize this is too myopic a view. Indeed these standards have created a dilemma -- a conundrum -- a paradox. Back to basics? BUT these basics must be taught differently, by stressing higher level thinking and life/work appreciation. Additionally, all children must be taught, be they rich, poor, learning disabled, foreign speakers etc. Cut frills but be creative Do not forget educating the â€Å"whole† child. Do well on standardized test while remembering and accounting for fewer standardized kids. Be literate and professional but as pointed out in numerous articles, care, and be a good moral person. Additionally include character education for students. This has led some educators to express reservations about these current trends, mostly because of fears that reform will be driven by conformity to policy mandates rather than the educational needs of children. John Goodlad (1999) observes, â€Å"The language of school reform virtually eschews reference to the measuring of self, civility, civic-mindedness, democratic character and participation in the whole of the human conservation.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Hollywood main stream cinema’s treatment of gender in the 1980’s Essay

To what extent is Rambo: First Blood Part 2 typical of Hollywood mainstream cinema’s treatment of gender in the 1980’s? Action films in the 1980’s reflected the changes and insecurity’s within American society. There had been a rise in feminism meaning that the masculine form and dominance was being undermined and white working class males did not know where their place was in society. It was also in the immediate time after the Vietnam War and confusion and anger still lingered. The Vietnam War divided the American nation as a whole because, as it has been in recent times with the war in Iraq, people didn’t fully understand why America needed to impose their presence in a country where they felt they had nothing to gain. The action film in the 1980’s introduced a hero that differentiated masculinity and femininity using the form of the body as a way of ensuring power, dominance and self-respect. Rambo: First Blood Part 2 is a typical film of this era in terms of masculinity and the ways in which men and women are portrayed. In the film Rambo: First Blood Part 2 Sylvester Stallone portrays a typical action hero of the ‘war film’ genre in the 1980’s but also an outcast of society after the Vietnam War. He is a veteran of Vietnam and came home to find that everything he had known had changed and he was no longer considered an honourable soldier but more as a war criminal. Rambo’s mission in this film is to go back to Vietnam and see if he can find a camp that he is told has many POW’s. If he finds the men, he can only take photographs but he has a problem with this and risks his own life to save them. He is very strong and muscular and is able to defeat the soldiers, Russian and Vietnamese, single handed. Douglas Kellner states that the film; ‘Follows the conventions of the Hollywood genre of the â€Å"war film†, which dramatizes conflicts between the United States and its â€Å"enemies† and provides a happy ending that portrays the victory of good over evil.’ (Kellner, 1994, p.10) This means that America always won no matter who the enemy was. In reality this is something that America could not accomplish. There was no happy ending and there were no immediate heroes. Rambo is allowed to bring glory upon America and diffuse a situation that could have cost the American military even more respect and dignity. America had lost some of its power within the world and they strived to get it back. It had lost its first war and it had become important to remasculinize America. There was a growing fear of communism in the country and displaying male heroes which went against the communist regime was their idea of establishing the ideal throughout the world by a means of globalization. Globalization had been taking place throughout the history of cinema by a means of film that was imported and exported to places around the world. In effect most of the action films set in Vietnam, and other films which hold a strong view of patriotism and heroism within America in the 1980’s, can be seen as propaganda films against the rise of communism. The purpose, with or without the knowledge of the audience, was to get the idea across to a mass audience that communism was against the principles of the country. In Rambo the ‘evil’ characters are the Vietnamese and Russian soldiers and ironically, it turns out that the greatest threat to Rambo is not the Vietnamese, although they do pose a strong force, it is the Russians. The Russians are shown as being extremely strong, relentless, and willing to put a man through torture to get what they want. Nevertheless, whatever the Russians do you cannot beat a man with as much physical and mental strength as Rambo. This follows a pattern throughout action films in the 1980’s. One film that is suggestive of this is Rocky 4. Rocky 4 (1985) also stars Sylvester Stallone but this time he is a boxer. He is fighting against a strong Russian fighter named Ivan Drago. Drago is very tough and stands at over 6ft tall. The Russian crowd all stand behind their fighter but when the final fight is over and Rocky defeats him with all of his strength the Russians begin to show support for Rocky and boo their fighter. This is the film industry’s way of evoking patriotism and the ever-growing fear of the communist regime after the Cold War. Philip L. Gianos states that; ‘The advent of Vietnam in film provided an opportunity for filmmakers who were denied an actual shooting war: a parallel, surrogate setting in which cold war themes could be played out.’ (Gianos. 1998, P.159) The first response from the film industry during this time was a set of anti-communist films to respond to the changing political environment. The villains are almost always portrayed as foreign internationals such as Russian, German, and sometimes English and they are usually a communist operative. They are never American in these films because the hero is American. He is fighting for his country and if it were another American he is fighting against he is effectively fighting against America. Other action films that were released at that time include, The Terminator, Rocky, Predator, and Die Hard. Millions of people worldwide, mainly consisting of young males went to see these films at the cinema. They gave them a chance to ‘latch on to big, muscular, violent men as cinematic heroes.’ (Katz, 1994, p134) These heroes gave the audience the chance to gain self-respect and security as it represented a masculinity that was unaffected by the rise of feminism. Gender roles had been reversed due to the growing rise of a feminist movement that showed women were increasingly moving into the workplace rather than staying at home. The displaying of the male physique and the physical torture it goes through to enable glory and victory over evil is further suggestive of masculinity in crisis and the gain of global respect. Women could not gain this kind of respect because they could not attain that degree of physical strength and endurance so therefore this was one thing that they couldn’t take away from men. The female role in the action film of the 1980’s appears at first glance to be on equal footing with the male. However, there are some differences in the ways in which they go about their missions. In Rambo: First Blood Part 2 the main female character, Co Bao, is strong, resourceful and a very capable fighter. She is Rambo’s contact in Vietnam and later becomes his love interest. During the film she cautions Rambo to follow his orders and when she goes to save him from the Russian’s in the POW camp she uses a different technique than Rambo. While Rambo attacked her captor from behind and overpowered him she sneaked into the camp as a prostitute. Therefore the issue of strength and power is present in the male character but in the female character it is more about subtlety and intelligence. Rambo is the definitive male of 80’s cinema and was joined by characters such as John McLain (Die Hard) and Rocky Balboa (Rocky). In these films the main action centres around one hero and the female character is usually the love-interest or accomplice. In previous war/actions films and Vietnam films the veterans were seen as either psychopaths, such as Travis Bickle in Taxi Driver, or tragic characters, Bob Hyde in Coming Home. In the films of the 1980’s, however, the hero fights back. In Rambo Part 2 Rambo can be seen as an anti-hero because of his rebellious behaviour by going against his orders to leave the POW’s and by telling Murdock that he will come and get him when he gets back from the jungle. This makes his character more dangerous and exciting to the audience as you don’t know what he is going to do. He has many people after him in Vietnam but he also has enemies at home. He has to deal with ‘home-grown discrimination’ because of the war and in effect he is no longer fighting for his country. He is doing it for the comrades that he fought with; ‘In these films the enemy is not the enemy in a war that is officially over but rather the civilian and military leadership that failed to win the war’ (Gianos. 1998, p.166) After Co Bao is killed Rambo channels his emotions into retaliation and thus becomes a fighting machine that is only out for revenge. Before she was killed he was ready to leave after finding that Murdock sent him out just to get free of him and stem reports that there were POW’s still in Vietnam. The style of the film helps to build the perception that he is a ‘god’ and that he is invincible. The use of lighting and camera angles are used to enhance his physique and the fast paced editing in the action shots are used to show that he is fast, strong and practical in the ways he attacks his enemies. Rambo shows us the ideal, very well-built muscular body of the white male in a place where he appears to belong. Commonly used iconography for Vietnam films included dense jungle, camouflage equipment and hi-tech weaponry. He uses the jungle to an advantage and appears to know it better than those who live there. He uses his initiative and intelligence in the jungle and is able to use it to gain the upper hand in a battle. One example of this is the scene in which he attacks a US soldier after he hides in a bank of mud with his eyes being the only thing visible. The male body in these films ‘constructs the white man as physically superior, yet also an everyman, built to do the job of colonial world improvement’ (Dyer, 2002, p.269) The fact that the superior build of the hero’s body establishes him as an everyman means that it is something that any man can attain – as long as you are white. Black men are rarely portrayed in this manner and if they are they are usually the villains of the movie and end up being defeated. In conclusion, the gender representation in the film is an effort from the United States to fulfil the growing need of remasculinizing American society, in particularly, in the dominant white majority of the working class. With the rise of feminism, fear of communism, political scandals and the Vietnam War, it became imperative for America to try and rebuild the image of men in a positive light. Rather than focusing on men as a collective these films focused on one individual and therefore a view of machismo, strength and determination became the ‘norm’. The films of the 1980’s became a kind of vessel of the ideal and most of these films are still popular in today’s society and may still be what some men aspire to be. If you were like these men you were considered to be manly and if you weren’t you were understood to be weak and not the ‘typical’ American male. The male hero in these films was put there to win. America needed a hero and they found him in these films. The masculine form was in crisis and the wholesomeness and fearless heroes could make an impact on the male audience who would then seek to be like the characters they watched on screen. Bibliography Gianos P.L (1998) Politics and Politicians in American Film, London, Greenwood Press Dyer, R, (2002) The White Man’s Muscles in Adams. R and Savran. D (eds) (2002) The Masculinity Studies Reader Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Jeffords S. (1989) The Remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam War Indianapolis and Bloomington, Indiana University Press Kellner D. and Katz. J (1994) in Dines G and Humez J.M (eds) (1994) Gender, Race and Class in Media London, Sage Publications

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Globalization and Immigration

Introduction Nowadays migration is getting to be one of the dominant characteristics of the modern world since at the present moment that movement of people and migration of citizens from one country to another become a norm. Not surprisingly that such unparallel and extremely high level of migration results in substantial demographic, ethnical and socio-cultural changes in many countries of the world. In this respect, it is worthy of mention that such a situation with the migration is the result of the recent trend in the world economy which is characterized by processes which are generally called globalization. The process of globalization is overwhelming and involves practically all countries of the world with rare exceptions which are traditionally rogue-states like Northern Korea, or other countries that stand on positions of isolation from the rest of the world. Consequently, a great majority of countries are involved in this process and tend to develop international relations on all levels, including cultural, political and especially economic, since globalization is primarily economic phenomenon that resulted in globalization of international relations on all other levels. In such a situation, it is quite natural that the process of migration is also affected dramatically by globalization. On the other hand, it is necessary to underline that, being a relatively new phenomenon, globalization is an extremely controversial process. Since its beginning, which is traditionally dated back to 1980s, there have been arguments concerning the effect the globalization may have on different countries. Such continues now and they have probably become even more serious and more controversial. However, there is a viewpoint, according to which globalization is rather positive phenomenon. On the other hand, there is a contrary belief that it is an extremely negative process. Naturally, such a controversial interpretation of globalization makes migration also quite contradictive. In fact, it is really important to find out what is the real effect of migration on all countries involved in the process which of them benefit from it and which lose, if any, or else what is the future of migration in the context of globalization. Globalization as the defining factor of migration In order to understand all current trends in the process of migration, it is necessary to briefly discuss the role of globalization in this process and its general effect. In actuality, globalization is considered to get started in 1980s. It was the result of a rapid progress of science and technologies accompanied with a rapid development of some countries that have never been among the world economic leaders before. Later, in 1990 this process became more obvious and globalization has become really global. The development of informational technologies, Internet and telecommunications made a particularly significant contribution to this process. As a result nowadays there are many international organizations, such as the World Trade Organization, as well as there are a lot of regional organizations, all of them aiming at pedaling the process of globalization and faster development of international economic cooperation between countries. In such a situation geographical boundaries between countries tend to disappear and, consequently, it is supposed that there will be fewer obstacles on the way of migrants. In this respect, it is worthy of mention that traditionally population movements â€Å"have taken place side by side with the development of contacts and flows between different societies and cultures† (Khor 2001:274). This is why the essence of globalization seems to contribute to elimination of barriers between countries and increase of the level of contacts and flows between different countries worldwide. Speaking about the essence of globalization in details, it should be said that globalization is characterized by economic specialization of different countries. It means that in the global market each country tends to occupy its own niche and sell the products or services it is the most competitive in. Naturally, it resulted in an extreme specialization of countries that makes their economies one-sided, and consequently more exposed to economic and social crisis. However, globalization developed international contacts and made it possible to cooperate on the global scale. As a result, nowadays, basically due to the high level of development of IT and Internet, specialists physically living in different countries of the world may work on one and the same product. So, it may be said that globalization â€Å"eliminated geographical boundaries between countries† (Gomory 2002:187). As for its effects, they are quite contradictive. The contrast is particularly obvious between well-developed countries and developing ones. In short, its effect may be expressed in one phrase, richer countries become richer, and poor countries become poorer. Though it sounds a bit radical and more precisely, it should be said that globalization makes developing countries more dependant on well-developed and it also makes practically all the countries of the world more submitted to global crisis since their economies are closely interlinked than a crisis in one country would lead to the same effect on economies of other countries that are its economic partners. In this respect, migration seems to be probably the most effective by such a striking contrast that leads to high level of emigration from developing countries and respectively high level of immigration in developed countries. This means that people from developing and poor countries prefer to move to developed and rich countries. Moreover, this process keeps growing despite the fact that globalization produced a positive influence on international trade flows that have increased significantly since the beginning of the process of globalization. Presumably, it should really improve the situation in developing countries and decrease the level of emigration. Nonetheless, in actuality the trend, which will be discussed in details a bit later, remains practically unchangeable even though many developed countries attempt to create certain artificial barriers to both legal and illegal immigration. In such a way it is necessary to remember that globalization is a dubious process that has both positive and negative sides and migration is highly dependent on this process to the extent that the basic migration flows are defined by the current situation in the global economy and possibilities of population movement between different countries. The current situation and problems of migration In fact, the current situation, when the world economy becomes more and more unified and practically all countries of the world are involved in the international trade and economic relations, it seems as if there remains little room for obstacles on the way of free population movement. Nonetheless, it is necessary to remember about a stark contrast between developed and developing countries which seem to get aggravated by the progress of globalization and the gap between rich and poor states keeps growing. Naturally, this gap, to a significant extent defines the current flows of population movement, i. e. migration. Basically, the current trends reveal the fact that people living in developing countries prefer to emigrate to well-developed and rich states where they suppose to have more opportunities to improve their life. Not surprisingly that some specialists underline that â€Å"the basic determinants of the international migration lie in the inequalities that exist in levels of development, and the enormous magnitude, persistence and flagrancy of those inequalities in the globalized world of today heighten the so-called pressures for migration† (Theissen 2006:8). Consequently, it would be logical to wonder what these ‘pressures’ exactly are. In order to answer this question, it is necessary to just briefly return to the basic socio-economic differences between developing and developed countries. On doing this, it will be obvious that it is the desperate socio-economic position of people in developing countries that force them to live their motherland and move to developed countries. In such a situation the negative effect of globalization on migration in global terms is quite evident since â€Å"economic policies pursued in the name of globalization, such as deregulation, free trade, and emphasis on exports may better some lives, but the poorest end up even more poor† (Weisman 2006:75). Consequently, the socio-economic situation in developing countries is getting to deteriorate and simply forces people to emigrate in search of better life and specialists emphasize that â€Å"most people migrate because they are poor – because they can’t feed their families, because they lost their jobs, because there is no hope of better life in their country† (Weiler 2002:104). One of the evidences of this negative impact of globalization on migration is the high rates of immigrants working in developed countries. In this respect it is worthy to look at Figure 1 which reveals that immigrants constitute a substantial part of the national labor force market in the US and basically they arrive from poor and developing countries of Latin America. Furthermore, the similar trends may be observed in other developing countries. However, poverty is not the only reason for population movement from developing countries to developed one. For instance, the UAE, being a developing country, is characterized by a relatively stable socio-economic life and often the reasons local people take a decision to live the country may vary, among which education is probably one of the most important since basically this state currently exploits its natural resources and in a long-term perspective the prosperity of the state would decrease along with decrease of natural resources’ potential. As a result, people do not simply find any real perspectives and they leave the country in search of new opportunities to find their own way in life. Moreover, links with foreign companies also contributes to the process of emigration which firstly provides opportunities to get education, secondly, get acquainted with a different lifestyle, and, finally, find alternative way of life than the one that is traditionally followed in the UAE. In this respect, globalization contributes to higher opportunities for local people to communicate with different cultures and move relatively freely in any country in the world. At the same time, it should be pointed out that the US is not the only country which is a kind of Promised Land from migrants from developing countries. For instance, Figure 2 show that the number of immigrants from Latin America and Caribbean in European countries is also quite significant, especially if one takes into consideration the distance between this region and other developed countries. Naturally, it is important to analyze the effects of such a trend in migration in the modern globalized world. In fact, the current policy of many developed countries, such as the US, or some countries of the EU such as France, indicate at the fact that new immigrants is a very serious problem for these states and this is why they attempt to thoroughly control the process of immigration and limit the access of new immigrants to their territories. In fact, this policy is a natural reaction on the effects of migration in globalized world. First of all, new immigrants provoke high level of competition in the national labor force markets in developed countries, to the extent, that the level of unemployment, especially among native population, may increase dramatically. The reason is quite simple immigrants are traditionally characterized as cheaper labor force, which though, as a rule, is not well qualified, or even semi-qualified or non-qualified at all. At the same time, immigrants, on receiving official status, demand the national government meets their needs and it is not a secret that national government has to fund immigrants whose socio-economic status is extremely low and naturally it is done with the money of tax-payers which are mainly native born. On the other hand, the migration from developing countries into developed is crucial for the former as well because it undermines the local labor force markets since the best specialists prefer to flow in a developed country than stay in a developing one and this process is known as brain drain (Khor 2001). In such a way, it is possible to say that the effects of the current migration dramatically influenced by the process of globalization is quite negative, though developed states are in a better position since they can improve the demographic situation while in developing ones it is deteriorated. Conclusion: perspectives of migration in the context of globalization Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the current trends in migration are rather negative than positive. In long term-perspective, the situation may get even worse if the current trends remain unchanged. To put it more precisely, it is obvious that the high level of immigrants in developed countries would be only partially beneficial for developed countries which can increase the number of working people due to immigrants and, consequently their economies will have opportunities for the further growth. On the other hand, this creates tension between native born labor force and immigrants whose labor is cheaper and, consequently, more attractive for employers. At the same time, immigrants also need health care protection, education, social guarantees, etc. thus, they need additional funding because of their poor socio-economic position and it is an additional burden for a state of any developed country. At the same time, developing countries also lose most qualified specialists and what is more younger generations are emigrating while the remaining population will risk to gradually grow older in national terms, i. e. gradually population of developing countries will grow older as it i s now in developed states but there will be little immigrants who could close the demographic gap caused by high level of emigration. Consequently, it is possible to presuppose that in the future developed countries would make their immigration legislation stricter and limit the access of immigrants while developing countries would stimulate local population to refuse from the idea of emigration. ibliography: 1. Danaher, C. Seven Arguments for Reforming World Economy. London: Routeledge, 1999. 2. Gomory, R. E. Globalization: Causes and Effects. New York: Touchstone, 2002. 3. http://www. wto. org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2002_e/its02_toc_e. htm 4. http://www. worldbank. org/data/countrydata/countrydata. html 5. Khor, M. Global Economy and the Third World. New York: New Publishers, 2001. 6. Schmidley, A. and Gibson, C. â€Å"Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States 1997†, Current Population Trend, series p. 123-195, 1999. 7. Theissen, C. Globaleyes: Globalization and Migration. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2006 from http://www. mcc. org/economicglobalization/viewpoints/perspectives/globaleyes/migration. html 8. Van der Borght, K. Essays on the Future of the WTO: Finding a New Balance. London: Routledge, 2000. 9. Weiler, J. The EU, the WTO, and NAFTA: Towards a Common Law of International Trade. New York: Guilford, 2002.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The eNotes Blog Why I Keep Rereading JaneEyre

Why I Keep Rereading JaneEyre Booklovers all have stories we return to over and over again. One of mine is Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontà «- but I don’t just reread it, I revisit it like a friend. I read my favorite chapters when I’m lonely, consult it when I need advice, turn to it when I feel lost or need comfort. Though it’s over 150 years old, I still find something new and relevant in it each time. Gothic Elements I first read Jane Eyre when I was fifteen, and it’s remained my favorite novel since then. I love it for the characters and atmosphere- Jane’s fierce independence, her romance with Rochester, the gothic allure of Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s writing- but also for the way those things have challenged me. One of the first things that struck me about the novel is the fantastical and gothic elements and how they’re included in the story. From the ghostly red room to Jane and Rochester’s eerie, moonlit meeting to Rochester’s frequent teasings that Jane is one of the fairy folk, fantasy is part of the everyday in Jane Eyre. Victorian Conventions This isn’t entirely unusual for a novel from the Victorian era: Victorians loved fairy tales. Andrew Lang’s fairy tale collections, Christina Rossetti’s poem â€Å"Goblin Market,† and Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland are all products of the Victorian fascination with fantasy. But the way Brontà « portrays the fantastic elements goes deeper than surface level. Jane and Rochester’s relationship contains elements of mysticism- from Rochester’s humorous impersonation of a fortune teller to the way Jane and Rochester, agonizing over losing each other, each hear the other’s voice calling to them during their separation. These things are eerie and beautiful; they render the love story impossible to contain in earthly bonds. In this way and others, the novel depicts romance quite differently from the Victorian norm. This is one reason the novel was so popular (and criticized by some) after it was published. Jane and Rochester’s relationship is powerful and intense from the start, and Brontà « wrote it with a fiery passion woven into the words on the page. It’s partly the restraint and tension that make it so intense, but I still marvel at how moving it is even to modern-day readers who aren’t used to the same censors on romantic and sexual content that Victorian readers were. Romance and Subverted Power Dynamics I especially love how Jane and Rochester develop feelings for each other not because of shallow physical attraction but because of a much deeper kind. I’ll call it an understanding: At their cores, they understand each other in an almost mystical way. Their relationship is based in intellect, in challenging each other to think differently and in talking about issues and philosophical ideas that matter to them. At fifteen, this kind of basis for love was foreign to me; at almost twenty-eight, I’ve still never read another love story quite like it. It represents a bond that transcends the normal human experience, and I think it’s utterly beautiful. I also appreciate the frank, unflinching way Brontà « explored power dynamics in Jane and Rochester’s relationship, including the initial imbalance of power between them. One scene that stands out is when Rochester threatens sexual violence when Jane announces she’s leaving him. (The movie adaptations usually gloss over this scene.) Rochester is both a hero and a villain in the novel, and I love that Brontà « depicted the more troublesome aspects of his character and built a relationship between him and Jane that is complex, layered, and utterly imperfect. Some readers see Rochester’s maiming and blinding as a way to â€Å"lower† him to Jane’s level- the level of a woman in Victorian society- and look upon this choice by Brontà « unfavorably, but I have a different take. I see it as Rochester being cleansed (literally in fire, even) for his sins, having to shed his controlling nature and toxic masculinity in order to deserve Jane as his equal and partner. His wounds are his battle scars, his reminder of what he has learned and overcome. While there are problematic elements to the way Brontà « refers to Rochester’s disabilities, there is also something powerful in this message. In Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s time, a man of Rochester’s wealth and social standing would have been considered far too good to marry a servant like Jane, and this cultural aspect is explored in the novel. However, Brontà « subverts this norm when she shows readers that it was actually Rochester who had to prove his worth to Jane. The main aspect of the novel I turn to during times of sadness or stress is Jane’s determination to live by her own moral code. Though she is influenced by her religious beliefs and the norms of the time, she also makes her own decisions. She chooses not to marry St. John because she doesn’t love him romantically. She chooses to return to Rochester not knowing he no longer has a wife. Her strength and strong will have always been reminders to me to live my life according to my own moral code: to trust in myself and to find strength in my own independence. Feeling like rereading  Jane Eyre? Check out the  complete annotated text  of Jane Eyre  on !

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Gnostic Jesus

The Gnostic Jesus Free Online Research Papers Gnostic writings of Jesus portray him as a heavenly redeemer made less of flesh than of spirit. The emphasis of Jesus importance is not on his physical humanness but rather, on his ability to show people the way to the kingdom. Jesus put on flesh in order to give people gnosis and reveal to them where they come from and where they will eventually return. When it is time for Jesus to return to his heavenly home, he is crucified and resurrected before he finally ascends. His bodys lack of importance in some Gnostic texts gives this series of events a different connotation than other versions of the story more common today. The Gnostic understanding of Jesus gives us better knowledge of what will happen to us when we leave the body and world in which we are currently trapped. This understanding also gives us insights into the realm in which we belong. The lack of concern for the body is also connected with the Gnostic view that anything that happens on this earth or in this realm is irr elevant. I will argue that the issue of flesh is very significant in some Gnostic views of Jesus, citing examples from selected Gnostic texts including, the Gospel of Thomas, the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, Hypostasis of the Archons, the Gospel of Mary, the Gospel of Truth, the Treatise on the Resurrection and the Hymn of the Pearl. Most Gnostic books show Christ to be of heavenly origin. The books either explicitly say that he is from the father and heaven above or imply it by saying that he descended into earth. He is part of the †¦heavenly triad with the Father and the Mother†¦(Franzmann, 39). In the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, the author who is supposedly Christ says, I am from above the heavens (Ehrman, 231). He is also sometimes described as a heavenly light, I am the light which is above all of them: I am All. The All came forth from me and the All reached me (G of Th., v.77). Many people, however, look at Christs incarnation in different ways. According to some Gnostic thought Christ comes to our earth and puts on Jesus human body so that he may walk among us. I visited a bodily dwelling (Ehrman, 231). Some of the Gnostic writings show Jesus as an earthly being with a heavenly nature, while others show Jesus as a purely heavenly being with a lack of earthly context. In the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, Christs incarnation was into Jesus body in which he cast out the original occupier (Franzmann, 75). Christs arrival on earth in the Gospel of Thomas is described in a docetistic way, I stood in the midst of the world, and I appeared to them in flesh (G. of Th, v.28). He is said to appear to them in flesh only in outward appearance (Franzmann, 78). The Gospel of Truth describes Jesus as a fruit of knowledge that when eaten gives people gnosis (Ehrman, 161). This Gnostic text shows Christ as a revealer. He is referred to as the book or logos, which reveals to us all that is unknown (Ehrman, 162). He put on the book, was nailed to a tree and published the edict of the father on the cross (Ehrman, 162). These actions say that by dying on the cross, which in this text is not in flesh, he is helping people receive gnosis. Many Gnostic views have implied a hatred of the body. The body is what is keeping people from realizing their origin (G. of Thomas, v.29). For Christ to have a human body seems strange because he has gnosis. Woe to the flesh which depends on the soul; woe to the soul which depends on the flesh (G of Th, v.112). According to the Hypostasis of the Archons, the body is just a shell for the spirit. Locked within the material shell of the human race is the spark of this highest spiritual reality which (as one Gnostic theory held) the inept creator accidentally infused into humanity at the creation on the order of a drunken jeweler who accidentally mixes gold dust into junk metal (Groothuis). Our spirit is trapped in our bodies and the only way to free ourselves is through gnosis. After the spirit came forth from the Adamantine Land; it descended and came to swell within him, and that man became a living soul (Hyp of Arc, 164). Anything that happens in this realm of matter is insignificant only when we find the kingdom or when we finally have gnosis, will we actually begin to live (Hyp of Arc, 167-8). All matter is a veil over the truth (Hyp of Arc, 167). Jesus strips himself of his perishable rags or dirty clothes as he ascends back to heaven (Ehrman, 162, 186). Jesus purpose while on earth is to reveal to his people the true nature of their being. Jesus enlightens and imparts knowledge. His job is to give us gnosis so that we may return to our heavenly home. If woman or man truly came to gnosis of this spark, she understood that she was truly free: Not contingent, not a conception of sin, not a flawed crust of flesh, but the stuff of God, and the conduit of Gods immanent realization (Gnostic Society). Spirit is good and desirable; matter is evil and detestable. According to the Hypostasis of the Archons, there are two heavens, an outer realm and an inner realm. The creation of the earth and humans was fla wed. The god of the outer realm created the archons who did not have spirit, while the people created in the inner realm do have spirit, however they are unaware of the spirit within them. When we achieve gnosis we have the understanding that we are from the outer realm and that we have spirit, unlike Yaldabaoth, the god of the inner realm. The Gospel of Thomas is a collection of Jesus sayings that are supposed to reveal to us the way to heaven or the outer realm. It shows Jesus to be a revealer of gnosis by clearing the fog or ignorance that surrounds us. The Archons want us to remain ignorant so that we do not enter the perfect outer realm (Hyp of Arc). He explains that the kingdom is a place with no poverty, where all is revealed and that it is already inside and around them but they must learn how to find it. According to the Hypostasis of the Archons, Jesus Christ is not essential for salvation but he is our bridge to it. He shows us that All who have become aquainted with this way exist deathless in the midst of a dying mankind (Hyp of Arc). To have gnosis is to understand where we come from. Gnosis, remember, is not a rational, propositional, logical understanding, but a knowing acquired by experience (Gnostic Society). The achievement of Gnosis is something that has to be done on a personal level and cannot be read or learned (Gnostic Society). Jesus shows us the way to the kingdom by awakening us from our drunkenness or blindness where we lost sight of God and heaven (G. of Thomas, v.28). Dependence on the body and earth will keep us in poverty (G. of Thomas, v.29), or without knowledge. Escape from this world comes with knowledge of our origins or the unknowing of beliefs we have that keep us from attaining gnosis. The beliefs that would keep us from attaining gnosis include the idea that Yaoldabaoth is our true god or that we are actually from this world. Until we realize that our bodies are not important and they everything in this realm is false we will not achieve gnosis. Christ reveals information about the kingdom to Mary Magdalene, telling her that where the mind is there is the treasure (G. of Mary). Christs crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension have great importance on Gnostic teachings. The events that take place at the end of Jesus life are perhaps the most important part of the Christian faith. When the flesh is not important, like in Gnosticism, the views on these events are changed. If the body is irrelevant then Jesus death is not as important to his followers. Is he able to suffer if he is not really in a body? What is resurrection if the body does not matter? When Christ is crucified in the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, he laughs at those who believe that they are hurting him because they are ignorant. I did not die in reality, but in appearance. Those in error and blindness.saw me; they punished me. It was ano ther, their father, who drank the gall and vinegar; it was not I. They struck me with the reed; it was another, Simon, who bore the cross on his shoulder. I was rejoicing in the height over all.And I was laughing at their ignorance. This version of the story is very different from the one in the Bible. In the biblical account, Christ does not mock his crucifiers but he asks God for forgiveness of the worlds sins (Groothuis). Pagels says that rather than viewing Christs death as a sacrificial offering to atone for guilt and sin, the Gospel of Truth sees the crucifixion as the occasion for discovering the divine self within (Pagels, 95). In the Gospel of Mary, physical suffering has no reality because physicality has no reality (G. of Mary). Christs crucifixion has a different meaning when he is not suffering on the cross for our sins. This is because in Gnosticism a persons pure soul was made good and the earth and matter were corrupted, so there is no need for forgiveness. In canoni cal stories, a perfect God made the earth and the people corrupted it with sin, so Christ must come down and be crucified for the salvation of the people. Gnostics and Orthodox Christians view Resurrection very differently. In Christianity, Christs resurrection only occurs once. He dies on the cross and rises from the dead back into flesh. The first person to witness his resurrection is one of his disciples, Paul. For the forty days following his resurrection, he is seen by his disciples in the flesh and talks about the kingdom of God. He shows some of the disbelievers that he is real by having them touch him, or he even eats with them (Luke). After these forty days, Christ never appears on earth in flesh again. Tertuillian, a brilliant Christian author from about 190AD, stated that not believing in the literal interpretation of Christs resurrection was heresy (Ehrman, 218). His main argument is that Christ was born, therefore flesh. There is no evidence that he was not flesh and no reason to believe that he would not want to be flesh (Ehrman, 221). Some gnostics called the literal view of resurrection the faith of fools (Pagels, 11). In Gnostic thought, literally seeing Christ was not what was importan t but it was spiritual visions that were held in high esteem (Pagels, 11). For the Gnostic who abhors matter and seeks release from its grim grip, the physical resurrection of Jesus would be anticlimactic, if not absurd. A material resurrection would be counterproductive and only recapitulate the original problem (Groothuis). In the Gospel of Mary, Mary Magdalene was the first to see Christ after he was risen but he was not in a physical body. She saw him in visions and dreams. The visions are not cast aside as hallucinations but are respected as spiritual contact with God. This thought of resurrection is not finite. Christ does not appear for only forty days to just the chosen few. This allows Christ to be seen throughout history. Do not weep, and do not grieve, and do not doubt; for his grace will be with you completely, and will protect you (G. of Mary, v.5:2). Mary, representing the gnostic, claims to experience his continuing presence (Pagels, 13). Resurrection is viewed by many Gnostics as waking up from death, which is life on earth, and becoming alive in heaven, which is also death on earth. There was a trembling that overcame the chaos of the earth, for the souls which were in the sleep below were released, and they were resurrected (Ehrman, 232). Gaining gnosis is the way to resurrection for tho se who belong in the outer realm. Death, according to the Gospel of Thomas, is life and life is death (G. of Th, v.11). Treatise on the Resurrection refers to resurrection as almost a revelation. What, then, is resurrection? It is always the disclosure of those who have risen†¦It is no illusion, but the truth! (Ehrman, 184). The world is described as an illusion and resurrection is the revelation of what is true. Not all New Testament stories of Christs resurrection were interpreted literally. Some stories had Jesus appear to the disciples in a more spiritual way. Both the gospels of Luke and Mark say that Jesus appeared in another form (Pagels, 5). In some accounts, he is said to vanish just as quickly as he appears. In Orthodox Christian thought, forty days after Christs resurrection, he is ascended back into heaven. There he remains at the right hand of God. In Gnostic thought, he ascends into heaven but may return at anytime. Christ, according to Christian theology, comes only once. The Bible, is the final word on everything pertaining to life on earth and the world after. Gnostics differ bec ause there is room for more ideas, and Christ may return to the earth again whenever he wants. Why should Christ come to earth so long ago and then just stop? Why is everything in the Christian religion based only on things that happened so far in the past? Gnosticism allows for reinterpretations of all the old laws, new books may be added to the library. Whereas, in Christianity there is only the Bible which cannot be changed. All these interpretations of Jesus will reveal to us our own souls journey. They give us an idea or insight into what will happen to us when we receive gnosis. What is our ascension into heaven like? What is resurrection for us? Jesus comes to earth and takes on a human body. We, too, are from the perfect kingdom and we come here and take on flesh. So like Christ, we are not from this world, however, unlike Christ, we do not know this. Christ tries to help us remember that we belong with the father. When he is crucified, he reveals to us more about the kingdo m. His resurrection is like what we might experience as well. This Gnostic resurrection is one in which we will gain gnosis and then die from the earth in order to live in heaven. We are brought back to our original life on heaven, after being dead the entire time on earth. After gaining gnosis, we must ascend to heaven. Since the perfection of the totality is in the Father, it is necessary for the totality to ascend to him (G. of Truth). When we have gnosis, we will have the world revealed to us. All that is unknown will now be known. The Hymn of the Pearl tells a story of a young prince who is sent to Egypt by his parents to find a pearl and bring it back to the kingdom. During his journey the young prince forgets his mission and falls into a state of drunkenness. Some courtiers, who know why the prince was there, wrote him a letter to remind him. He immediately remembers his task and that he is not from this land but from the kingdom. He takes off his dirty clothes and is able to return back to his fathers kingdom (Ehrman, 185-7). This story has many parallels to the Gnostic theory of Jesus journey and our own. Christ is sent on a mission to earth by his father. He puts on his dirty clothes or flesh and descends to earth. After he completes his mission he takes off the flesh and returns home to the kingdom of his father. This is also similar to the gnostic view of our own journey. We are from the kingdom of the father and are sent down to complete a task, while on earth we forget where we are from and what we ar e supposed to be doing here. Jesus tries to remind us through his parables and sayings that we are not of this world. And if and when we finally remember this, we take off our dirty clothes and return to the kingdom of our father. Gnostic texts place an emphasis on the flesh of Christ. It is not the same emphasis that Orthodox Christians do but still flesh or the lack of flesh remains an important theme in many Gnostic writings. Some Gnostics have hatred for flesh based on the importance of the outer realm rather than the inner realm. The gods of the inner realm know that we have spirit and they want to keep us from understanding this. They are jealous of us and want to steal the spirit from us because it is the only thing in the inner realm that is worth anything. Having spirit is the only way to have access to the outer realm, which is perfect in every way. Our bodies keep us from realizing that we have something inside us that is more important. The world around us keeps us from looking inside ourselves. A docetic Christ, shows the importance of the word rather than earthly actions. By examining Christs journey, we can have a better idea of our own souls journey. When we achieve gnosis, we will gain entrance to the kingdom with God as well as Christ. Bibliography Ehrman, Bart D. After The New Testament: A Reader in Early Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Franzmann, Majella. Jesus in the Nag Hammadi Writings. Edinburgh: T T Clark, 1996. Groothuis, Douglas. Gnosticism And The Gnostic Jesus. Christian Research Journal. 1994. Online. URL: http://iclnet93.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/crj0040a.txt (20 April 2000) Pagels, Elaine. The Gnostic Gospels. New York: Random House, 1979. The Gnostic Society Library. Introduction to the Nag Hammadi Library. 18 August 1997. Online. URL: http://home.sol.no/~noetic/nagham/nhlintro.html (10 April 2000). Research Papers on The Gnostic JesusAlbatross and Rimm of the Ancient MarinerThe Broken FamilyThe Rise and Fall of Napoleon BonaparteBooker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells-BarnettGlobal Distributive Justice is UtopianThe Story of Beatrix PotterSexually Transmitted DiseasesHenderson the Rain KingMy Writing ExperienceIs the Use of Psychotropic Drugs in the Treatment of

Sunday, October 20, 2019

A Hella Cool New Dictionary Entry

A Hella Cool New Dictionary Entry A Hella Cool New Dictionary Entry A Hella Cool New Dictionary Entry By Mark Nichol Merriam-Webster, publisher of the print and online dictionary that is perhaps most widely consulted by wordsmiths in the United States, has made what some may consider an audacious decision: Hella is now officially a member of the English language. As an aficionado of etymology, I have always been pleased to have been near a word’s geographical and chronological epicenter; that’s something not everybody can boast of. Having lived near Silicon Valley, and having worked at Wired magazine during its early years, I often rubbed shoulders with neologisms back in the day. Hella is near and dear to my heart because it was the first fledgling word I recognized as such. It’s unofficially been part of the lexicon for at least four decades; I first heard it in the late 1980s, spoken by white children in Berkeley who likely had overheard black classmates use it. They, in turn, had heard it from older siblings or neighbors, who had by then been using it for years. (That’s an intriguing case study for those interested in the distinction between a word’s likely birthdate and its date of first attested, or documented, use; hella was first attested in 1987. Another curious detail is that the Oxford English Dictionary welcomed hella in 2002, fourteen years before a dictionary across the Pond gave it the thumbs-up.) Although I was an adult by then, I immediately grew fond of the word, a contraction of â€Å"hell of a† and â€Å"hell of a lot of† that modifies not nouns, like the phrases from which it came, but adjectives. It’s an intensifier, as seen in the headline for this post. But, you may splutter, hella is such an uncouth word! It sullies the dictionary with its presence. Well, so does the next Merriam-Webster entry, hellaballoo (a variation of hullabaloo, meaning â€Å"uproar†), a hick of a word if I ever saw one, though it’s older than the United States. And hellacious (â€Å"very difficult, large, or powerful†), which follows hellaballoo and goes back at least a hundred years, is a country-bumpkin cousin of hella. Why are these and so many other louche locutions in the dictionary? Because that’s what a dictionary is for- it is a record of our language’s astonishingly rich, ripe diversity. That may be a bit confusing for those who consider a dictionary to be a guide, not a museum, but hellacious isn’t exactly a dusty, brittle artifact: Five years ago, it popped up in the title of a video game, Hellacious Acres: The Case of John Glass, and it’s available for anyone who needs a rip-snorting adjective. And though I’d steer around hellaballoo, I can easily imagine using the original from which it is derived to humorously describe a cacophonous commotion. And hella? It may not belong in a business report, a textbook, or an academic journal (except for one about linguistics). But it has its place in many media: blogs, young-adult novels, youth-culture publications, and even general-circulation periodicals. If you need it, use it. The same goes for two other neologisms that have been awarded the Merriam-Webster badge of validity: TMI (an initialism abbreviated from â€Å"too much information†) and FOMO (an acronym derived from â€Å"fear of missing out†). (The distinction between initialisms and acronyms is that the former are pronounced letter by letter and the latter are pronounced as words.) It intrigued me that although I’ve been titillated for years by TMI- a protestation in response to being told more personal details than one wants to hear- I had never heard of the abbreviation for a phrase pertaining to anxiety about not being part of stimulating and/or trendy experiences. That term’s existence is a telling commentary about our increasingly vapid culture, but it’s also hella cool. (I know- irony alert!) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Beautiful and Ugly WordsAbstract Nouns from AdjectivesWhen to use "an"

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Cloud Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Cloud - Essay Example Access rights given allow the client to run applications, save data, or compute virtually any task. It has been enabled by the ever improving computer processing capabilities while reducing cost on the other hand. The distinctive services provided by cloud computing are either; SaaS (software as a service), PaaS (platform as a service), or IaaS (infrastructure as a service) (Rodrigues, 2012). Saas’ functionality can be explained in a business perspective. Uses of software as a service, clients are availed with access to databases and application software. Cloud vendors manage the involved technicalities platform and infrastructure running the involved applications. On-demand software is the other term used to describe software as a service and is charged on the basis of pay per us. The vendors tag prices on their services based on a subscription fee per package. The subscription may be monthly or annual allowing the prices to be adjustable and scalable where users are removed or included at a certain point. Manipulation is not possible for the clients as the owner of the infrastructure manages applications. The cost of I.T infrastructure is cut from the clients end through the process of outsourcing software and hardware support and maintenance from the cloud computing vendor. The salvage cost is channeled to equally productive objectives. Updates are done without affecting the client or without the need of any installation. The main demerit is that the clients’ data is stored in these servers which risks unauthorized penetration that turns clients to increasingly embrace intelligent or third-party managing systems to attempt to secure their data. As for the pros of Amazon EC2, there is no vendor-locks system, which eases code transfer. It also allows for code writing in simpler languages such as MVC, C#, and Net above being backed by a strong support team. It allows its clients to scale single instances to several more giving full

Friday, October 18, 2019

GROUNDING & BONDING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

GROUNDING & BONDING - Essay Example It is done with the help of copper wire to establish connection between all parts. Bonding is concerned with the techniques and procedures necessary to achieve a mechanically resilient low impedance interconnection. Grounding is the process in which we connect the bonded equipment to the earth. It is a special form of bonding in which conductive equip ­ment is connected to an earthing electrode or to the building grounding system in order to prevent sparking between conductive equipment and grounded structures. Bonding and grounding do not rectify the source or cause of stray voltage instead it reduces the harmful effect of stray voltage to a level where it may no longer pose any threat or problem. In the absence of bonding the potential difference can cause damage to equipment when any two parts of sensitive equipment are connected to system which can acquire different potentials. Bonding and Grounding Principle Bonding and grounding are basically two separate concepts in which on e is the physical medium and the other one act as the method for creating that medium. It is a very effective technique for minimizing the likelihood of an ignition from static electricity.

Microprocessors advancement generations Research Paper

Microprocessors advancement generations - Research Paper Example Microprocessors or processors are the core components of any information system contributing to the goals of an organization. The microprocessor or processor â€Å"interprets and carries out, or processes, instructions and data contained in the software† the microprocessor evolved from the creation of transistors in to integrated circuits. Moreover, the integration of these components is vast in this current age of information technology, where every now and then, computing devices are expanding their usage beyond imagination and finds a new product to take their place. Today, microprocessors are comprised of over millions of transistors that are integrated to a small chip that can be easily located on the fingertips (Betker, Fernando and Whalen 29). However, the factor that makes these microprocessors better from the other is the speed on which it operates. Microprocessor clock speed is measured in Mega Hertz (MHz), Giga Hertz (GHz) and TeraFLOPS. Microprocessors Advancement Generations The first general purpose microprocessor, composed on a single chip was launched in 1971. The microprocessor was capable to operate on an eight-bit architecture along with the implementation capacity of four bits. Moreover, the microprocessor includes 2300 transistors with a capability to perform less than 0.1 million instructions per second (MIPS). After the invention of the first general purpose microprocessor, 8008 right bit microprocessor was invented. The microprocessor was built on 3500 transistors as compared to the general-purpose microprocessor with 2300 transistors.... Moreover, a language was also introduced for operating the system named as assembly language. The processor was built on 29000 transistors along with features including memory protection and floating point co processor. Moreover, in 1981, IBM a company for manufacturing commuting devices launched the latest version of Intel’s 8086. The microprocessor was named as 8088. The second generation was triggered by a significant improvement in the architecture of microprocessors as Motorola launched the first 32-bit microprocessor named as Motorola 68000. The processor was equipped with general-purpose registers supporting less than 1 million instructions per second. Motorola 68000 was used with Apple Mac, Silicon graphics and Apollo systems. The third generation was started by the first commercial microprocessor named as MIPS2000 based on Reduced Instructions Set Computing (RISC). Moreover, the processor supported instructions and data cache simultaneously. As compared to the previou s processor supporting less than one MIPS, MIPS 2000 was capable of providing five to eight MIPS. The total transistors that were embedded on the processor were 125,000 thousand. The fourth generation of microprocessors was started by the introduction of 64-bit architecture. The processor supporting the 64-bit architecture was MIPS 4000. As compared to the third generation microprocessor i.e. MIPS 2000, MIPS 4000 capability was unmatched. Instead of installing the caches separately on the motherboard of the computer, it was integrated in the microprocessor. The features for integrated cache are on chip and off chip i.e. as a secondary cache. Moreover, floating point was also integrated on the chip. The microprocessor is

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Managing change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Managing change - Essay Example Among these businesses, there are oil fields in different countries globally, wind power production plants, and natural gas processing plants. The corporation’s business fell under the threat of diminishing levels of performance following the Gulf of Mexico oil spill three years ago (Freudenburg & Gramling, 2011). The following discussion establishes the prevailing changes in concern to the factors of production, and the relationship with the company and the global society. Analytical discussion to the causes of oil spill change Following the 2010 oil spill, British Petroleum Company established that the situation affected the broad global society from the locals that depended on the seafood as a source of livelihood to the end consumer of BP’s petroleum products. The company lacked credibility from the society as the spill caused havoc to the environment and led to destruction of natural resources (Druskat and Wolff, 2001:45). For example, the spill led to deaths of ov er ten employees, and harbored fishing as it considerably led to the death of fish and other sea organisms that remained integral to the society’s benefits. The spill affected the ecosystem and postulated remorse from the diverse human society. Therefore, BP’s management established that the ideal resolution to the increased aggression of the society because of the company’s accident would be the implementation of policies that would reshape the organization’s image towards the general environment. Precisely, the corporation established the changes as achievable through rendering and delivering support from people within the system (Gido & Clements, 2012). British Petroleum Company established that the business programs were undergoing diminishing levels of performance thus denoting the need for strategic resolution to ensure growth to the desired extend. The valuable approaches that the management resolves to use and establish the corporation’s pe rceived current state of business (Fisher, Hunter and Macrosson, 1998:35). With the increased remorse and decreased customer loyalty, the corporation analytically established change as a precise role of targeting ascertainment of the objectives. Initially, the corporation had competitively preserved a profitable market share ahead of other competitors including Royal Dutch Company, Shell, and Exxon Company. However, through enlightening of the global society into adapting environmentally friendly matters, the company fell under a situation of diminishing performances as the loyalty for its business undertakings dwindled accordingly following the oil spill. Arguably, the company resolved to develop a precise plan that would steer acquisition of the set recovery measures. Further, changes were set to recuperate the damages following the loss of the $560 million oil rig that drained the company’s capital base after environmental concerns raised and the company resulted to inject billions of dollars to the cleaning exercise. The changes deferred the company’s profitability forecasts following the capital deviation to budget for the cleaning exercise of the ocean rather than production of the oil to reach the end consumer profitably. British Petroleum Company became a victim to the environmental measures and the abiding fines after they deceived the authorities that the situation was under control, but failed to accomplish the promise (World Bank, 2012). United States of America

Dolphins Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Dolphins - Research Paper Example Finally I will attempt a self- analysis of my writing development, research ability and improvement overall as a writer and researcher. As a result of the last three projects and the content of Writ1133 I’m much more comfortable with my knowledge and ease of use with the various perspectives of research and methodology. I have developed my own writing style and individual preferences for the type of research and perspective I prefer. The first assignment started with the selection of an animal that we wanted to continue to study through the next three projects. I chose the dolphin aware of the many resources available and extensive scientific studies done on their many communication abilities and already having an interest in the dolphin. The assignment then consisted of reviewing science or scientific perspective by locating scholarly journals or publications written in more technical language. I was then to abstract pertinent, interesting and related information and write this in an easy to understand way for my intended audience, which at this time being class mates. It was important to use non-technical and expert writing for this assignment. I was to define my target audience and how I might use pathos to reach and grab their attention and also decide how to appeal to their values. The second project was to use five sources and create a literature review using an ‘artifact’ of something that contained the dolphin. Ideas or/and themes were to be represented and I was to create an analysis of the dolphins role in the text I selected. This project was to use a humanistic perspective and analysis was to be supported with evidence from the text and from research. Some possible questions to answer were how the animal is represented and also why is the animal being represented in the artifact? Project three focused on

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Managing change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Managing change - Essay Example Among these businesses, there are oil fields in different countries globally, wind power production plants, and natural gas processing plants. The corporation’s business fell under the threat of diminishing levels of performance following the Gulf of Mexico oil spill three years ago (Freudenburg & Gramling, 2011). The following discussion establishes the prevailing changes in concern to the factors of production, and the relationship with the company and the global society. Analytical discussion to the causes of oil spill change Following the 2010 oil spill, British Petroleum Company established that the situation affected the broad global society from the locals that depended on the seafood as a source of livelihood to the end consumer of BP’s petroleum products. The company lacked credibility from the society as the spill caused havoc to the environment and led to destruction of natural resources (Druskat and Wolff, 2001:45). For example, the spill led to deaths of ov er ten employees, and harbored fishing as it considerably led to the death of fish and other sea organisms that remained integral to the society’s benefits. The spill affected the ecosystem and postulated remorse from the diverse human society. Therefore, BP’s management established that the ideal resolution to the increased aggression of the society because of the company’s accident would be the implementation of policies that would reshape the organization’s image towards the general environment. Precisely, the corporation established the changes as achievable through rendering and delivering support from people within the system (Gido & Clements, 2012). British Petroleum Company established that the business programs were undergoing diminishing levels of performance thus denoting the need for strategic resolution to ensure growth to the desired extend. The valuable approaches that the management resolves to use and establish the corporation’s pe rceived current state of business (Fisher, Hunter and Macrosson, 1998:35). With the increased remorse and decreased customer loyalty, the corporation analytically established change as a precise role of targeting ascertainment of the objectives. Initially, the corporation had competitively preserved a profitable market share ahead of other competitors including Royal Dutch Company, Shell, and Exxon Company. However, through enlightening of the global society into adapting environmentally friendly matters, the company fell under a situation of diminishing performances as the loyalty for its business undertakings dwindled accordingly following the oil spill. Arguably, the company resolved to develop a precise plan that would steer acquisition of the set recovery measures. Further, changes were set to recuperate the damages following the loss of the $560 million oil rig that drained the company’s capital base after environmental concerns raised and the company resulted to inject billions of dollars to the cleaning exercise. The changes deferred the company’s profitability forecasts following the capital deviation to budget for the cleaning exercise of the ocean rather than production of the oil to reach the end consumer profitably. British Petroleum Company became a victim to the environmental measures and the abiding fines after they deceived the authorities that the situation was under control, but failed to accomplish the promise (World Bank, 2012). United States of America

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Health Care Enterprise (IHE) implementation Essay - 1

Health Care Enterprise (IHE) implementation - Essay Example Some studies conducted in practices of surgery and others in out-patient clinics (Littman, 1991). At the beginning of the literature reviews of search strategy to enhance the process of thinking regarding the focus and topic of the most important literature (Hunnicutt, 2010). The research conducted using the keywords; non-attendance rate, patient not turning up, no-shows, preoperative education, did-not- attends theatre utilization and preoperative teaching (Gupta, 2009). For the search to be refined techniques such as Boolean connectors (AND, OR), ex â€Å"preoperative patient education† quotations (â€Å"x†), ex. (non-attendance rate and theatre utilization) were applied. This aided in the achievement of the exact or accurate information and also saved time. Furthermore, this forwarded the search used to track the publishing of information by examining the lists of references that selected studies preferred and looked at the citations (Malika, 2005). Scott sought for non-attendance reasons from patients and a barium enema was requested. Literature proves the reasons of non-attendance as generally classified as multi-factorial (Wicker, & Oneill, 2010, 249). They differ in healthcare practices, settings, and/or times (McLaughlin, 1994). The impression given to the reader is that results change according to other factors. The validity and reliability of the used measures are reported clearly and precisely (Woodhead, & Wicker, 2005, 141). The overviewed literature is quite replete with evidence of the importance of improving the patient-hospital communication (Dickson, 2008). The communication was improved by the interventions of reminders from telephone and personal contacts with the patients (Stolt, 2009, 5). The interventions were used in most studies and shown the effectiveness in reducing the rates of non-attendance (Stolt, 2009,

Monday, October 14, 2019

Learning process in behaviour Essay Example for Free

Learning process in behaviour Essay Learning is a permanent change in behaviour caused by experience. The learner does not need to have the experience directly; we can also learn by observing others . It is an ongoing process. Our knowledge of the world is continually being revised as we are exposed to new stimuli and receiving ongoing feedback that allows us to modify our behaviour when we find ourselves in a similar position again Psychologists who have studied learning have developed advanced therories on the process of learning. Here we will discuss the two major approaches to learning; instrumental and classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning It occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. A Russian physiologist , Pavlov introduced classically conditioned learning by pairing a neutral stimulus ( a bell ) with a stimulus known to cause a salivation to dogs ( he squirted dry meat powder). The powder was an unconditioned stimulus because it was capable of causing the response. Over time, the dog has learned to associate the bell with its meat powder and begin to salivate at the sound of the bell only. The drooling of these canine consumers because of a sound now has a linked to feeding time, was a conditioned response ( CR ). This basic of classical conditioning applies to responses controlled by the autonomic and nervous systems. When these cues are consistently paired with a conditioned stimuli such as brand names, we as consumers may feel hungry, thirsty or aroused when later exposed to brand cues. Conditioning effects are more likely to occur after the (CS) conditioned and  unconditioned ( UCS ) stimuli have been paired a number of times. Repeated exposures increases the strength of stimulus-response associations and prevent the decay of these associations in memory. Many marketing strategies focus on the establishment of associations between stimuli and responses. Behavioural learning principal applies to many consumer phenomena, ranging from the creation of a distinctive brand image to the perceived linkage between a product and an underlying need. The transfer of meaning from an unconditioned stiulus to a conditioned stimulus explains why made-up brands like Marlboro, Coca-Cola or IBM can exert such powerful effects on consumers. Operant conditioning Over the years behaviourist have carried out operant principals out of the narrow world of the skinner box and into the wider room of society. The use of the operant techniques to help people change unwanted, dangerous, or self-defeating habits in real world settings is called behaviour modification ( applied behaviour analysis ) Behaviour modification has had enormous success, behaviorist have taught parents to toilet train their children in only a few sessions etc. as you can see from everyday world behaviour modificaton is not a science but an art. Operant Conditioning : process of applying the law of effect to control behaviour by manipulating its consequences. Law of effect: behaviour followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated; behaviour followed by unpleasant consequences is not 4 basic reinforcement strategies is use in operant conditioning; positive reinforcement -negative reinforcement -punishment -extinction Positive reinforcement : the process by which people learn to perform acts leading to such desirable outcomes. Whatever behaviour led to the positive outcome is likely to occur again, thereby strengthening that behaviour by making a pleasant consequences contingent onto its occurrence. Negative reinforcement: Negative reinforcement is the process by which people learn to perform acts that lead to removal of undesired events or unpleasant consequence contingent onto its occurrence. Punishment: administrating of negative consequences or withdrawal of positive consequences that tend to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behaviour in similar settings Extinction: ceasation of previously established reinforcer that is maintaining a behaviour by removal of a pleasant consequence of its occurrence. Positive reinforcement can take many forms. One of the strongest is praise and recognition for the good work. It is good rewards management. It shifts the emphasis and energy of the manger towards a larger number of employees, rather than focus all the attention and time on poorer employees. If done correctly it can make all but the worst employees feel that the organization recognizes and appreciates their effort and contributions. If the desired behaviour is specific in nature and is difficult to achieve , a pattern if positive reinforcement called shaping can be used. Shaping is the creation of a new behaviour by the positive reinforcement of successive approximations leading to the desired behaviour. Negative reinforcement governs a good deal of our behaviour. Some people do  think that it is a reasonable way to manage people at work that is, employees who engage in undesirable behaviour should expect something to happen to them. But there are some difficulties with this approach. First it creates a tens environment ( difficult to work everyday where the main motivation is to prevent unpleasant outcomes ) secondly, relationships often deteriorates when superiors represent a constant threat to be avoided. There can be adverse side effects in using punishment. An action intended to punish may instead be reinforcing because it brings attention -the recepient of punishment often responds with anxiety ,fear or rage -the effectiveness of punishment is often temporay, depending heavily on the presense of the punishing person or circumstances -most misbehaviours is hard to punish immediately thus resutingin the reinforcement of the undesired behaviour -punishment conveys little info Extinction is important and quite commonly used. This strategy decreases the frequency of or weakens the behaviour . The behaviour is not unlearned; it simply is not exhibited. Since the behaviour is no longer reinforced, it will reappear when it is reinforced again. Whereas positive reinforcement seeks to establish and maintain desirable work behaviour, extinction on the other hand is intended to weaken and eliminate the undesirable behaviour Law of contingent reinforcement states for reward to have the maximum reinforcing value ; it must be delivered only if the desired behaviour is exhibited . Secondly, the law of immediate reinforcement states , the more immediate the delivery of a reward after the occurence of a desirable behaviour, the greater the reinforcing value of the reward. Timing of postiove reinforcement; a) the continuous reiforcemnt schedule administers a reqrd each tie a desired behaviour occurs b) b) an intermittent or patila reinforcement schedule rewars a behaviour only periodically. 4 varieties of partial reinforcement schedule a) Fixed interval schedules b)Variable interval schedules c)Fixed ratio schedules c) Variable ratio schedules In general , a mange can expect that the continuous reinforcement will draw a desired behaviour more quickly than will intermittent reinforcement Steps in positive reinforcement program; @identify specific behaviour that are to be changed; must be accurate and reliably observed and then recorded. Behaviour should be measurable and observable. @ determine the links between the target behaviour, its consequences and stimulus condition leading to the beaviour) @develop and set specific behaviour goals for each person and target behaviours @recording process toward the goal @apply appropriate consequences; rewards, punsihmnets,extinction

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Use Of Dramatic Monologues

The Use Of Dramatic Monologues Compare the ways the poets develop a story through the use of dramatic monologues: in the poems The Man He Killed by Thomas Hardy, Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess, both by Robert Browning. In this essay I will be analysing the poems, The Man He Killed by Thomas Hardy and Robert Brownings My Last Duchess and Porphyrias Lover. My Last Duchess and Porphyrias Lover were both written in the Victorian era, and The Man He Killed was written just after Queen Victoria died. All of the poems, I am studying, are dramatic monologues, which are used by poets to portray their powerful emotions to the reader only through a single character. Dramatic monologues usually deal with issues that are of controversial nature, which are shocking and create drama and suspense through the poets use of dramatic language. My Last Duchess and Porphyrias Lover are both set in the 19th century; both monologues focus on the views of the patriarchal Victorian society, dominated and often corrupted by powerful men. Women were not allowed to voice their opinions or disobey the forceful male authority, which controlled them. Disobedience meant ruthlessly harsh and terrible consequences. This abuse of power is well illustrated in My Last Duchess, in which the Duke, a man of power and command, misunderstands his wife and conflicts harsh treatment upon her. We know that the Duke is powerful as he has the power to kill his wife without being suspected: I gave commands. /Then all smiles stopped altogether line 45/46. This is dramatic as the Duke abuses his power to rid himself of his innocent misunderstood wife. Moreover, this is shocking to the audience as a man who people believe to be virtuous, exploits his authority, in addition, he murders a naà ¯ve woman whose only crime was being appreciative and pleased for her life. The Duke describes the Duchess as beautiful, kind-hearted and easily pleased by small things. The Duke believed that instead of being cheerful to everyone she meets, the Duchess should have behaved in a more regal manner; spot of joy is a metaphor for blushing meaning that other men could easily make the Duchess blush, probably by complimenting her beauty, she thought they were just being kind however the cynical Duke considered it as flirting and disapproved of her reactions to such remarks, he says that she had a heart too soon made glad. Throughout the poem, Browning uses caesuras which suggest that the Duke was hiding something or pausing to think, this indicates that the Duke was apprehensive when he was talking about his wife; this can also suggests that the Duke did not know his wife and therefore could not easily describe her. In line 45, I gave commands/Then all the smiles stopped together, we learn that the Duke ordered the assassination of his wife, he casually informs the silent listener about how he murdered his wife. Furthermore, he is boasting about it, expressing no regret at her death but focusing on the artistry of the artist for catching her expression. The is Duke callous, he is not poignant for her death; he tries to presents his pleasant side towards the audience, nevertheless though his speech the reader can see that he is very jealous and devious. When she was alive the Duke could not control her smile and did not understand her love for him therefore he considered her to be unfaithful. The Duke likes the smile in the painting as he can control it and only he can receive it as he owns the painting and it is placed behind a curtain, hence he controls who she smiles at. This to the audience is shocking as a woman is treated like an object. The Dukes controlling behaviour can be compared with the lovers in Porphyrias Lover as he too had a peculiar approach towards his love. The unnamed lover transforms from being passive to controlling towards the end of the poem when he brutally murders Porphyria to ensure that Porphyria would only belong to him. Porphyrias Lover seems like a typically romantic poem; however it reveals shocking and horrific elements as in this poem a wealthy, high-class lady (seeking comfort and love) has an affair with a poor low-class man, who unjustly murders her. The unnamed lover knew that society would not let them be together, therefore, he decides to be with his lover forever in death. Dramatic phases like: Three times her little throat around, /And strangled her, are used to create shock in the readers mind. This quote is very dramatic and powerful as this act was a murder, which the reader witnesses. This would create shock and horror within the readers mind. It would also make the reader curious as the reader would want to know why the unnamed lover murdered Porphyria when she truly did love him. The main issues that are dealt within this poem are class differences; different classes had to keep separate, however a forbidden love was blooming midst this diverged society. This was considered as unacceptable and would have never been supported in the society at that time. They knew that society will not allow their affair to continue therefore the lover makes the decision that in order to keep Porphyria with him he would have to kill her. By killing Porphyria, the lover seeks to stop time and preserve the moment of love that they share. They cannot be together vainer ties dissever as Porphyria cannot break free from her wealthy friends, as she was too weak, thus the lover decides that he would kill her in a deranged attempt to be together forever. Through this dramatic monologue Robert Browning brings out an issue that was evident during the time, but one that was overlooked and secreted. Browning wrote this to show that women, in the Victorian society, trod on a fine line betw een possessing a life and being impressionable objects denied of any rights. Both My Last Duchess and Porphyrias Lover convey the same form of love; a love based on jealousy and possession. Both speakers of the monologues are possessive of their love and murder their love in order to ensure that they remain faithful to them only and do not fraternise with any other males in the society. Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess are both about possessive, psychotic men who murder their love. In both poems, the two speakers kill their lovers based on what their individual psychosis caused them to see; however, what the two speaker saw was different, due to this the reason and the way the two speakers kill their love is different. Even though the speakers attitudes between the lovers are different in both poems, both the Duke and the unnamed lover are unable to deal with their feeling realistically or appropriately. They both neglect the womens feelings and physical wellbeing in favour of their own selfish love. In both monologues the women were seen as a prize that could be gained. In My Last Duchess, the Duke tries to win over the Duchess by presenting her with lavish gifts, however that was not enough to win her love. The Duke believed that the Duchess did not see him as nothing special or important: but who passes /Much without the same smile he deduces this as she did not have a special smile for him. He thought that his greatest gift to her was his gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name. Nevertheless, the Duchess did not believe that she should treat the Duke superior to anyone else and due to this the Duke considered that she was ungrateful to be married to a wealthy, influential man like him. The attitudes shown in the two poems are very different, whereas hardy creates a modest, baffled character who feels very guilty, brownings Duke is a vain, proud man who has killed his wife in a premeditated manner. Both poem are about killing, the solider feels very guilty for his actions; evident, when he says I shot him dead because†¦ that was clear although.. his guilt is evident as he is questioning his own actions, this strikingly contrasts the Dukes attitude who is relatively content about murdering his wife as he believes that it was the right thing to do to protect his familys honour. All three poems are developed around the theme of murder and killing. Hardys character feels liable for the death of a stranger; however, both of Brownings characters are unconcerned about the death of their beloved. †¦cottagedripping cloak and shawl†¦soiled gloves†¦ lines 9, 11, 12 this quote is dramatic as it shows that the man porphyria has an affair with is a poor low-class man as he lives in a cottage. The dramatic theme comes in as we find out that Porphyria is a rich, wealthy lady who can afford expensive garments. This would create a powerful impact on the audience as in Victorian times rich and poor never mixed. It was highly unusual for rich people to even touch a low classed person; nevertheless porphyria breaks all societys rules and dares to have an affair with the low classed man. Necromancer -people messing with dead bodies The lover believes that he was right in his decision in killing Porphyria and justifies his actions as they were performed with the pure intention God has not said or done anything. Furthermore, he believes that he made the right decision as Porphyria let him kill her. She did not struggle or resist therefore he believed that he made reasonable decision. It is arguable that she agreed with his decision as she loved him and she let him do anything he wanted with her. The poem is of hopeless love and disturbing death. Lines 21-25, the lovers cannot be together as Porphyria is already committed to someone else. She is probably married or engaged and thus she is committing adultery. This is shocking to the Victorian society as the young woman is betraying her family by fraternising with the low classed man. The poem is deplorable to the audience of the time as the young woman takes off her clothes in front of a stranger: †¢ She begins to expose herself: he is morose even though she is elegant and beautiful †¢ Now HE has the power †¢ He dehumanises her by referring to her as it. †¢ He reassures himself again: states she wanted to die Browning uses contrast a kind gentle wife and a cunning suspicious husband. The Duke has an avaricious personality. In the monologue, the Duke is shown as an insane and sick man with absolute power, utterly remorseless, a man unable to express love or pleasure; this is the description of a dangerous monster. This also shows that the Duke could not see the value of love and friendship; he only wishes to own all that is rare and unique Notice Neptune†¦a rarity/Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me! This quote shows that the Duke had a taste for collecting pieces of rare art; this shows the reader that in the Dukes view his wife was merely another item in his possession, an ornament to him which increased his status within society. When he felt that the Duchess might cause him to stoop he decided that it was better to kill her than let her destroy his reputation with her trifling. Does not have skill in speech- which I have not- only has skill in power and force. The Duke is powerful as he does not need the dowry from his new Duchess, dowry will be disallowed this shows the reader that the Duke is very wealthy and powerful. Furthermore, in the next few lines of the monologue, we discover that to the powerful Duke the new Duchess would be just another possession, his fair daughters self†¦is my object and Notice Neptune, though, /Taming a sea-horse, This quote shows that the Duke believes that the Dukes daughter will become his new ornament, he also implies the fact that she will be tamed just as Neptune, the god of the sea tames a wild seahorse. This shows that the Duke considers himself to be superior to anyone else and believes that he has had power over all who enter his realm. Thomas Hardy wrote the poem, The Man He Killed, demonstrating the effect war has upon soldiers and how war changes friend into a foe. The Man He Killed reveals the speakers feelings about killing another innocent soldier during the battle. The poem is dramatic as the single speaker mentions how much they both had in common; he thought hed list off hand just as I, this quote justifies the other mans innocence. The poem is dramatic because the audience is shocked by the speakers sense of regret about his own behaviour. The poem is highly ironic as the speaker mentions that war is quaint and curious. He is saying that war is strange because people want to join the army to satisfy their curiosity, only to find that they kill innocent people who are just like them. The drama of the monologue reveals that the soldier does not understand the seriousness or the purpose of war, You shoot a fellow down the speaker does not know why it is right to murder innocent people. This is further emphasised when the speaker move on to show his confusion as he does not know the reason he killed the other man; I shot him because because, the repetition of because and the use of the hyphen indicate a pause to show that the young soldier is still living in a state of shock. The speaker believes that the innocent young man he killed probably joined the army for the same reason as him- to get some money so that they could live appropriately. However, the soldier did not know that the glamorous life that the army showed them would be cursed. The government made the army look exotic and exciting as the men had the opportunity to go abroad. In the readers viewpoint this would be shocking as in that period, people believed that the government went to save the people, not kill them. Visiting abroad, at the time, was only available to wealthy, who could afford to spend a large sum of money on luxury. Moreover, the speaker believes that money is the bane of life as he had to kill to earn it this shows the reader that the speaker, unlike the Duke, was not driven by money or the power that originates from it; however, just the two other monologues, in this monologue someone dies due to class distinctions and misunderstandings.