Saturday, August 31, 2019
Alain Locke, in Ã¢â¬Å"The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ suggests that the Ã¢â¬Å"old NegroÃ¢â¬ is really nothing more than a myth or an ideal. He talks about the fact that there are aspects of Negro culture Ã¢â¬â such as the spiritual Ã¢â¬â that were beaten down but were accepted when finally allowed to emerge. Locke then takes a look at some trends, including the tendency toward moving Ã¢â¬Å"city-ward,Ã¢â¬ and says these are not because of poor or even violent conditions in the south nor of the industry in the north. Instead, he attributes this migration to Ã¢â¬Å"a new vision of opportunity. Ã¢â¬ Locke then points out that the Negro is willing to work for better conditions and that this migration is not only toward the city and away from the country life, but also away from the old ways and toward the new. New Negro is a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation. The term Ã¢â¬Å"New NegroÃ¢â¬ was made popular by Alain LeRoy Locke. The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ Locke described the landscape of Harlem as filled by different notions of what it meant to be a black American. -Old NegroÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"more myth than a manÃ¢â¬ and the blind acceptance of this Ã¢â¬Å"formulaÃ¢â¬ against ideas of Ã¢â¬Å"the thinking NegroÃ¢â¬ and the true diversity of actual human beings This move is significant because Locke uses this idea to create space for a more accurate representation of the Negro community in light of the antecedent ideological poles of the moral leadership and imaged blackness. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s primary goal in the essay Ã¢â¬Å"The New NegroÃ¢â¬ is to migrate from monolithic notions of an Ã¢â¬Å"Old NegroÃ¢â¬ , as well as from the exhausted frameworks of bourgeois intellectual black leadership toward an idea that gives creative agency and credibility to the Ã¢â¬Å"rank and fileÃ¢â¬ of Negro life (Locke, New Negro: 6). -New NegroÃ¢â¬ as a means of rediscovering individuality of voice in the context of community. Ã¢â¬â// In a 1925 essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ Alain Locke described this transformation as an embracing of a new psychology and spirit. Locke felt that it was imperative for the Ã¢â¬Å"New NegroÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"smashÃ¢â¬ all of the racial, social and psychological obstacles that had previously kept the Black man from reaching his goals. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"The intelligent Negro of today is resolved not to make discrimination an extenuation for his shortcomings in performance, individual or collective; he is trying to hold himself at par, neither inflated by sentimental allowances nor depreciated by current social discounts Ã¢â¬Å"By shedding the old chrysalis of the Negro problem we are achieving something like a spiritual emancipation Ã¢â¬Å"Negro life is not only establishing new contacts and founding new centers, it is finding a new soul Ã¢â¬Å"So for generations in the mind of America, the Negro has been more of a formula than a human being Ã¢â¬âa something to be argued about, condemned or defended, to be Ã¢â¬Å"kept down,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"in his place,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"helped up,Ã¢â¬ to be worried with or worried over, harassed or patronized, a social bogey or a social burden? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In the intellectual realm a renewed and keen curiosity is replacing the recent apathy; the Negro is being carefully studied, not just talked about and discussed. In art and letters, instead of being wholly caricatured, he is being seriously portray eel and painted. Alain Locke, in Ã¢â¬Å"The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ suggests that the Ã¢â¬Å"old NegroÃ¢â¬ is really nothing more than a myth or an ideal. He talks about the fact that there are aspects of Negro culture Ã¢â¬â such as the spiritual Ã¢â¬â that were beaten down but were accepted when finally allowed to emerge. Locke then takes a look at some trends, including the tendency toward moving Ã¢â¬Å"city-ward,Ã¢â¬ and says these are not because of poor or even violent conditions in the south nor of the industry in the north. Instead, he attributes this migration to Ã¢â¬Å"a new vision of opportunity. Ã¢â¬ Locke then points out that the Negro is willing to work for better conditions and that this migration is not only toward the city and away from the country life, but also away from the old ways and toward the new. New Negro is a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation. The term Ã¢â¬Å"New NegroÃ¢â¬ was made popular by Alain LeRoy Locke. The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ Locke described the landscape of Harlem as filled by different notions of what it meant to be a black American. -Old NegroÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"more myth than a manÃ¢â¬ and the blind acceptance of this Ã¢â¬Å"formulaÃ¢â¬ against ideas of Ã¢â¬Å"the thinking NegroÃ¢â¬ and the true diversity of actual human beings This move is significant because Locke uses this idea to create space for a more accurate representation of the Negro community in light of the antecedent ideological poles of the moral leadership and imaged blackness. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s primary goal in the essay Ã¢â¬Å"The New NegroÃ¢â¬ is to migrate from monolithic notions of an Ã¢â¬Å"Old NegroÃ¢â¬ , as well as from the exhausted frameworks of bourgeois intellectual black leadership toward an idea that gives creative agency and credibility to the Ã¢â¬Å"rank and fileÃ¢â¬ of Negro life (Locke, New Negro: 6). -New NegroÃ¢â¬ as a means of rediscovering individuality of voice in the context of community. Ã¢â¬â// In a 1925 essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ Alain Locke described this transformation as an embracing of a new psychology and spirit. Locke felt that it was imperative for the Ã¢â¬Å"New NegroÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"smashÃ¢â¬ all of the racial, social and psychological obstacles that had previously kept the Black man from reaching his goals. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"The intelligent Negro of today is resolved not to make discrimination an extenuation for his shortcomings in performance, individual or collective; he is trying to hold himself at par, neither inflated by sentimental allowances nor depreciated by current social discounts Ã¢â¬Å"By shedding the old chrysalis of the Negro problem we are achieving something like a spiritual emancipation Ã¢â¬Å"Negro life is not only establishing new contacts and founding new centers, it is finding a new soul Ã¢â¬Å"So for generations in the mind of America, the Negro has been more of a formula than a human being Ã¢â¬âa something to be argued about, condemned or defended, to be Ã¢â¬Å"kept down,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"in his place,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"helped up,Ã¢â¬ to be worried with or worried over, harassed or patronized, a social bogey or a social burden? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In the intellectual realm a renewed and keen curiosity is replacing the recent apathy; the Negro is being carefully studied, not just talked about and discussed. In art and letters, instead of being wholly caricatured, he is being seriously portray eel and painted. Alain Locke, in Ã¢â¬Å"The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ suggests that the Ã¢â¬Å"old NegroÃ¢â¬ is really nothing more than a myth or an ideal. He talks about the fact that there are aspects of Negro culture Ã¢â¬â such as the spiritual Ã¢â¬â that were beaten down but were accepted when finally allowed to emerge. Locke then takes a look at some trends, including the tendency toward moving Ã¢â¬Å"city-ward,Ã¢â¬ and says these are not because of poor or even violent conditions in the south nor of the industry in the north. Instead, he attributes this migration to Ã¢â¬Å"a new vision of opportunity. Ã¢â¬ Locke then points out that the Negro is willing to work for better conditions and that this migration is not only toward the city and away from the country life, but also away from the old ways and toward the new. New Negro is a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation. The term Ã¢â¬Å"New NegroÃ¢â¬ was made popular by Alain LeRoy Locke. The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ Locke described the landscape of Harlem as filled by different notions of what it meant to be a black American. -Old NegroÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"more myth than a manÃ¢â¬ and the blind acceptance of this Ã¢â¬Å"formulaÃ¢â¬ against ideas of Ã¢â¬Å"the thinking NegroÃ¢â¬ and the true diversity of actual human beings This move is significant because Locke uses this idea to create space for a more accurate representation of the Negro community in light of the antecedent ideological poles of the moral leadership and imaged blackness. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s primary goal in the essay Ã¢â¬Å"The New NegroÃ¢â¬ is to migrate from monolithic notions of an Ã¢â¬Å"Old NegroÃ¢â¬ , as well as from the exhausted frameworks of bourgeois intellectual black leadership toward an idea that gives creative agency and credibility to the Ã¢â¬Å"rank and fileÃ¢â¬ of Negro life (Locke, New Negro: 6). -New NegroÃ¢â¬ as a means of rediscovering individuality of voice in the context of community. Ã¢â¬â// In a 1925 essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ Alain Locke described this transformation as an embracing of a new psychology and spirit. Locke felt that it was imperative for the Ã¢â¬Å"New NegroÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"smashÃ¢â¬ all of the racial, social and psychological obstacles that had previously kept the Black man from reaching his goals. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"The intelligent Negro of today is resolved not to make discrimination an extenuation for his shortcomings in performance, individual or collective; he is trying to hold himself at par, neither inflated by sentimental allowances nor depreciated by current social discounts Ã¢â¬Å"By shedding the old chrysalis of the Negro problem we are achieving something like a spiritual emancipation Ã¢â¬Å"Negro life is not only establishing new contacts and founding new centers, it is finding a new soul Ã¢â¬Å"So for generations in the mind of America, the Negro has been more of a formula than a human being Ã¢â¬âa something to be argued about, condemned or defended, to be Ã¢â¬Å"kept down,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"in his place,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"helped up,Ã¢â¬ to be worried with or worried over, harassed or patronized, a social bogey or a social burden? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In the intellectual realm a renewed and keen curiosity is replacing the recent apathy; the Negro is being carefully studied, not just talked about and discussed. In art and letters, instead of being wholly caricatured, he is being seriously portray eel and painted. Alain Locke, in Ã¢â¬Å"The New Negro,Ã¢â¬ suggests that the Ã¢â¬Å"old NegroÃ¢â¬ is really nothing more than a myth or an ideal. He talks about the fact that there are aspects of Negro culture Ã¢â¬â such as the spiritual Ã¢â¬â that were beaten down but were accepted when finally allowed to emerge. Locke then takes a look at some trends, including the tendency toward moving Ã¢â¬Å"city-ward,Ã¢â¬ and says these are not because of poor or even violent conditions in the south nor of the industry in the north. Instead, he attributes this migration to Ã¢â¬Å"a new vision of opportunity. Ã¢â¬ Locke then points out that the Negro is willing to work for better conditions and that this migration is not only toward the city and away from the country life, but also away from the old ways and toward the new.
There are a lot of things that come to mind when a person hears the word literature. Usually, one thinks of a book, story, classical work or some variation of the aforementioned but to ask someone to define the term literature, proves to be a much trickier task. Many are stumped when asked this question. People often answer by giving examples of literary works but fail to actually give an encompassing definition of the term. Welcome to the world of Webster (Dictionary that is). WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary defines the term literature as the body of written works of a language, period, or culture. This definition seems be broad but continuing on in the definition there was one part that really stood as a more adequate representation of what literature is about. The definition reads as follows; Ãâ¦the body of written work produced by scholars or researchers in a given field. This particular definition seems to hit at the core of literature; scholarship and specialization. Some feel that that all written works are forms of literature. I contend that a true work of literature must be written by a person who has studied a given field (specialization) and produced a work that allows the reader to gain some form of a lesson or viewpoint (scholarship), whether agreeing with the writer or taking an opposing stance of the information set fourth in the work. This is not to say that these types of works do not have any entertainment value but they have a type of entertainment that wraps the lesson, argument or viewpoint in an engaging style rather than being force-fed the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ stance. A true work of literature should evoke some form of discussion on the works main point. A work of literature needs all of the above, not only to be called a true work of literature but to also cement its place in history, which is the last piece of the puzzle when defining the term. Literature stands the test of time and can be discussed by great grandchildren as well as great grandmothers and all those in between. This all goes to say that the importance of literature is its ability to connectÃ a community known as the human race. Classical works of literature have been translated so that all human beings can share in a great piece, even being translated to an audio, so that those who can not read will not be stopped from participating in the act of community that literature provides. It is amazing that even though some might not share the same culture as others, they could start a discussion around a piece of literature. The literature in this instance acts as a unifier rather than just a book or story, thus proving the power of literature and the overall power of the written word. A true work of literature must have scholarship, specialization, a unifying human element and an entertaining delivery in order to stand the test of time. The points mentioned above give literature criteria on which to be compared. The importance of literature goes far beyond just having Ã¢â¬Å"a good read.Ã¢â¬ Literature possesses an intangible that can have a great impact on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Great works of our time have brought nations together, stopped feuds, healed wounds, and have even taught humans how to be Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬ again. Literature is extremely important and necessary to the growth of this world and for a creation of a global society.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Discuss the Role of Energy in the Body, Describe the Process of Cell Respiration and Give Three Examples of How Energy Is Used in the Human Body
M1- Discuss the role of energy in the body, describe the process of cell respiration and give three examples of how energy is used in the human body Every living cell needs energy. The form of energy that we use is chemical energy in the form of glucose that we get in our food, mainly from carbohydrates such as bread, pasta and potatoes. Living cells cannot function without energy, which can then lead to death. To release the energy from glucose, oxygen is added (oxidise glucose) by breathing continuously to supply to the millions of cells that undertake cell respiration, this is also known as internal respiration.The rate that glucose is used at depends on the individuals' metabolism (B. M. R). The basal metabolic rate depends on the amount of thyroid hormone that is produced. A person that has a fast metabolism then it is less likely that they will put on weight whereas if a person has a slow metabolism then they may tend to put weight on. A factor that can influence metabolism rat e is age. This is because as you get older your metabolism will be likely to slow down. Cell respiration: The word equation for cell respiration is:Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water Chemical equation: C6H12O6 + 6O2 = Energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O Waste products of carbon dioxide and water can be excreted through the lungs and kidneys as expired air and urine; otherwise the chemical atoms (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) can be recycled to reform glucose (C6H12O6). Cell respiration happens in the mitochondria in cells and tissues, e. g. the skeletal muscle, which has millions of mitochondria for increased energy demand. Three examples of how energy is utilised by the body:Muscles use a lot of energy in order for movement to happen. When the muscle tissues contract they will need a good supply of glucose and oxygen. ?Movement: The contraction of skeletal muscles attached to the bones and joints uses energy ? Breathing: Intercostal muscles and the diaphragm relax and contract whic h increases and decreases the internal volume of the lungs for breathing. This involves energy ? Peristalsis: The slow movement of food through your digestive system allows digestion to occur (smooth muscle) uses energy
Thursday, August 29, 2019
H - Case Study Example Before the venture the salaries of the partners were between $55,000 and $90,000. This means that everyone on the team was going to be receiving a raise. There was no reason to fight over which person deserved more money among the partners since everyone was going to be richer in terms of salary. The decision to spit the equity equally was also the simplest way to arrange the partnership. My opinion is that the founding partners of NanoGene Technologies created a division of wealth fairly. On many instances when people are starting a business they fight too much over who deserves what even before the business venture starts to make money. The founding partners of NanoGene Technologies are all very satisfied with the arrangement. All partners where able to increase their total compensation in terms of salary and ownership in comparison with their prior jobs. The new venture will improve their quality of life because of the higher compensation and the control and self satisfaction of w orking in a company that you founded. B. Some people might perceived that NanoGene Technologies created a company introducing too many founding partners due to the fact the maximum amount of founding partners is typically three. This assumption is incorrect because if a larger group is satisfied splitting the money among more people it does not matter if there are more than three founding partners. The founding fathers of NanoGene Technologies are: Tompkins, Mark Masterson, Ravi Rhoota, and Gary Garfield. The founding team is composed of four scientists. This was a noble idea, but it would have been much better to have a more diversified group of professionals in the founding team. The current dilemma associated with the hiring of Paige Miller would not exist if one of the members of the founding team had an MBA. There is a huge difference between the founding members of a company and the early employees. The founding members of a company are the pioneers that had an idea which they develop into a product or service. The founders are the persons that made the original investment to start the business. Founders are also the ones that put in the original R&D time to develop a product. On many occasions the founding teams invest hundreds or even thousands of hours without receiving a penny of compensation prior to starting the business. The early employees are the people that are hired to work for a company once the operation starts. In the NanoGene case study Paige Miller if hired would be one of the early employees. Other needs such as engineers or accountants could have been met by having a more diversified group of founding partners. C. Paige Miller is an experienced professional with an expertise in the biotech industry. She is a proven winner and a person that can lead a business towards the path of success. She would be serving the role of VP of operations. Her salary demands are $175,000 and 3% of the equity. The first issue with her salary demands is tha t she would be making more money that the four founders of the company. Her salary would be superior to the salary of the CEO. Also her equity demands would equal the equity currently held by the founding fathers. Despite the high salary demands that Paige is asking the reality of the marketplace is that VP of operations are making upwards of $175,000 a year. Mrs. Miller is an excellent candidate and a good fit for the company. Due to the
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Considered the Mummys Curse, a series of unexplainable, unfortunate, or tragic events that happened to the people who were present at the opening of Tutankhamens tomb - Essay Example The mystery started with the death of the financer of the excavation, Lord Carnarvon, who died a year later as a result of a mosquito bite and his death was followed by many others who were involved with the excavation. The two theories that best explain the mystery are the theory of fungus and the theory that the curse never existed in the first place. Several notable experts in the field such as Dr. Ezzeddin Taha (Biologist), Gotthard Kramer (microbiologist), Dr. Nicola Di Paolo (Physician), etc have identified fungus in the tombs that are dangerous to human beings. On the other hand, medicine scholar Mark Nelson proved statistically that many stories surrounding the curse are not factual and more people survived the curse than those who died which goes on to prove that the curse did not exist in the first place (Krystek, 2012). The illness associated with the deaths of those related to tombs can be explained scientifically. Dr. Ezzeddin Taha examining those working in tombs found that they were exposed to a potentially dangerous fungus known as Aspergillus niger. Dr. Nicola Di Paolo identified another fungus known as Aspergillus ochraceus in many archaeological sites. Gotthard Kramer in 1999 on analysing 40 mummies found the presence of mold spores that are potentially dangerous (Krystek, 2012). It is shown that these dangerous funguses could have survived for 1000Ã¢â¬â¢s of years in the tombs and infecting those coming in contact with it (Abel, 2006). There these funguses are a possible explanation for the illness and deaths associated with the mummyÃ¢â¬â¢s curse. This is the best possible explanation as it is based on science and can be proven with
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Prepare a brief summary report on 3 key employment relations issues for an Australian company about to expand its operations into a country in Europe or Asia - Essay Example Such expansion is usually a resultant of continuous profit making and can either be within or without the business host country. When looking to expand a business into another country, it is vital to take into contemplation numerous factors. The employment relation issue is one key factor including others such as the costs of operations in that business and the trade market exchange prevailing in the country. All these factors are taken into account prior to such ventures in preparation for all and any situations that might arise (Dascalova, 2008: p.82). In an instance like this where an enterprise is venturing all the way into another continent, it is of upmost importance that research and such preparations conducted. This highly attributes to the fact that such places depict remarkably different environments and operational responsibilities, laws and regulations. Employment relations issues mainly deal with the pertinent issues between a business or employer and its employees. The management of employee relations is paramount in ensuring that the business ideals and goals are upheld while also catering for the rights of employees. It advocates for a win-win position on both sides of the business and employees. The business may, for example, may manage this relation by establishing of regulations regarding discipline, performance, conflict of interests and conduct. Employees, on the other hand, are safeguarded labor laws and regulations, employee unions and rights groups among others (Walters, 2011:42). India, a country in Asia is well known for its large involvement in commercial and technological development. It is also highly densely populated and developed thus making it a significant target market for most companies. Due to this, the country has stipulated substantial labor laws that are as a hindrance for the current slow pace in developmental growth (McNair, 2009: p.2). There are various employment relation issues in the country that would have
Monday, August 26, 2019
Creating Anglo-America 1660-1750 - Essay Example His strong belief in one God that is universal drove him to argue that God dwelled in all people and, therefore, no people (including those with authority/government) had the right whatsoever to force people into a particular form of worship. Penn was also a strong believer in the equality of all people regardless of their race, gender, sex, color or sex. This in turn made him advocate for equality by arguing that Ã¢â¬Å"liberty is a universal entitlementÃ¢â¬ that was conflicting the pre-existing belief that liberty was a right to be entitled only to certain individuals. To put this in a practical manner, Penn found it necessary to buy Indian land and offered it to the Indian refugees who had been driven out of the other colonies. In his attempt to come up with a government that put into consideration the rights of all, Penn came up with a frame of government in 1982. In his charter Penn aimed at offering Ã¢â¬Å"Christian libertyÃ¢â¬ to all who affirmed a strong belief in God and expected them not to promote the liberty in promoting sexually immoral things. In this period, the government was responsible for regulating the people`s moral public behavior and some particular people such as the Jews were not allowed to be holding an office of any religious institution. The Quakers strict code of personal morality drove Penn into believing that by giving people religious freedom immorality would reduce as people would lead a life that corresponded to God`s expectations. This charter, however, didn`t prove sufficient to guide the growing population of Pennsylvania and was therefore replaced with a charter of liberties whose political system lasted up to the period of American Revolution. Ã
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Culture Expos Project - Research Paper Example market. In assessing the Filipino culture, the study hopes to suggest some strategies to attract and fulfill the needs of this particular market. Filipinos are natives of the Philippines, a country in the Asia Pacific region near Hong Kong and Malaysia. Historians have noted that the Filipinos have a mixed culture due to their mixed ancestry. The earliest generations of this culture are Malays who came to the Philippine islands for settlement (Halili, 2004). They scattered all over the country, and because the Philippines is an archipelago, the Filipinos speak different dialects or local languages (Agoncillo, 1974) but like their Chinese neighbor, manage to maintain a national language also called Filipino. Chinese inhabitants are also all over the country but they settled in the Philippines merely for business, hence the Filipino of today also bears some Chinese ancestry. In 1521, the Philippines was discovered by Spanish colonizers led by Magellan (Halili, 2004). This started the c olonization of the Philippines by the Spaniards whose settlement lasted for more than three centuries (ibid.). This long history of colonization has a great impact on the Filipino culture. Nevertheless, the cruelty of the colonizers kept a distance between the natives and the former. Rizal, the PhilippineÃ¢â¬â¢s national hero whose name is acclaimed in some Western countries like Germany, noted in his writings how the Spaniards, especially the rulers of the Church treated the Filipinos with lambasting words, unjust imprisonment and disappearance, denial of property, among many other acts of injustice (Capino, Gonzales, and Pineda, 2005). The Philippines was liberated from the Spanish regime when the Americans came in 1901. Unlike the Spaniards who did not teach their language for fear of being overpowered, the Americans, through the Thomasites taught English to the Filipinos and promoted education, especially free elementary education. The Thomasites were the first American teache rs who came to the Philippines to teach the Filipinos (Halili, 2004). The Americans noted the lack of education and the poverty that loomed in the Philippines after the Spanish regime. They attempted to improve the living conditions of the Filipino by sending some scholars in the U.S. to study (ibid.). Those Filipinos may have inspired others to come to America, thus explaining the wide population of Filipinos in the U.S. at present. When the WWII broke up, the Philippines was invaded by Japan and along with Filipino soldiers, some American soldiers were tortured by the Japanese to march several miles from Bataan Province to Manila (ibid.). This is known today as the Bataan Death March, in which some soldiers died of hunger and thirst. After four days, when additional American troops were sent to the Philippines, the Japanese invaders were ousted, making the Filipinos free from another threat of colonization. The different settlers in the Philippines impacted the Filipino culture, m aking it a combination of the Spanish, American, and Japanese culture superimposed by the Malay ancestry it has. Filipinos nowadays have healed from their past and seen on American television, for instance, Charice Pempengco, ultimately project easy adaptability with other cultures. Their clothes are a cross between Western and Asian influences. They have developed a cultural adaptability style that tends to accept differences and unify
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Is Globalization a Challenge to or Confirmation of Realism In What Ways - Essay Example In this paper, globalization will be investigated as an IR topic with reference to the implications of realism. The main body of this paper begins with a conceptual description of both realism and globalization. Next is the section of discussion. In this section, four dimensions are considered for analyzing globalization as a pervasive IR process. In conclusion, it is reiterated that globalization is indeed a confirmation of realism since the core values of this international process are based on maximizing the national benefits in the long run in a cooperative way. Realism is a school of political philosophy and thought that establishes the concept of self seeking behavior where a number of international actors are involved. According to realists, a country always attempts to maximize the benefits it can draw when it comes to the matters like power struggle and conflict of interests (Yilmaz 2010). This is basically an amoral approach to international relations (IR) where ground realities around power politics are more important that the lofty ideals of ethical behavior (Russell 2000). While realism is a theoretical outlook on IR and world politics, globalization has emerged as a major worldwide process that is dynamic and evolving with the lapse of time. Lechner (2001, paragraph 1) has defined globalization in the following words: Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization broadly refers to the expansion of global linkages, the organization of social life on a global scale, and the growth of a global consciousness, hence to the consolidation of world society.Ã¢â¬ Of late, scholars like Morgan (2013) have attempted to find correlations between realism and globalization with the help of triangulated research meaning that the need of conducting both quantitative and qualitative studies is to be emphasized. Furthermore, the basic core of the process of
Friday, August 23, 2019
M4 Differentiated, Learner-Centered Professional Development - Essay Example There will be a survey that will be carried out at the end of the workshop to evaluate the workshop and to give suggestions for future workshops. There will also be an opportunity within the survey questionnaire for grading certain aspects of the institution in terms of teaching using the Leaning Forward and the MorzanosÃ¢â¬â¢ Nine steps. Participants are encouraged to be as honest as possible in their feedback to allow for accurate analysis and note that all the questionnaires shall remain anonymous for the sake of confidentiality. The professional development session will deal with both teachers and students. School administrators by the very nature of their work will also have to collaborate with the teachers and the students in terms of facilitating the means by which feedback is received and analyzed. This is the best practice for making changes and it is the best guide to decision making at all levels whether it is in the classroom or in the boardroom. Data based needs of new teachers can be slightly different from those who have been in the profession in the past because change is dynamic in all fields with the ever-changing work environment, which is influenced by change and technological advances. This has brought differentiation. It is pertinent to note that the teaching profession has many stakeholders with the major two stakeholders being the teacher and the student. The session will be borrowing heavily form Professional developments for professional learning, which is a leader in the area of individual teacher effectiveness. This is an effective and great approach to professional learning, which will translate to better student learning, as it seeks to improve the individual performance of teachers. The entire concept is core to the majority of national eduÃ cation systems and their effectiveness, as this type of strategic approach puts singular emphasis on aligning professional development with teacher
Mildred Pierce Assignment - Essay Example The first purpose, which relates to placing a woman at the center of the story universe, best describes the messages in Mildred Pierce movie. Indeed, this purpose is very dominant in the film as the film revolves around the life of a long-suffering mother and her ungrateful daughter. In fact, the film focuses on domestic life in the context of women, motherhood, and the female opinion. In fact, Mildred Pierce is a homemaker who sacrifices everything and tries all income generating projects to support her ungrateful daughter (Mildred Pierce 1945). The movie even presents female rivalries between the younger woman and the older woman. We can also see Mildred getting married to a newly unemployed Pierce who later leaves her with no income (Mildred Pierce 1945). Moreover, we can see Mildred surrounded by weak men and supportive women that confirms the purpose of placing a woman at the center of the story universe. In fact, the questioning of Mildred by police after they discover the body of her second husband, Monte Berago forms the basis of the film (Mildred Pierce 1945). These aspects confirm the purpose of placing a woman at the center of the story universe in the Mildred Pierce film.... Such an association depicts bad motherhood. On the other hand, Mildred could only become a waitress, a fact which she hides from her daughter Veda (Mildred Pierce 1945). Such lies do not represent good motherhood and consequently we can identify with VedaÃ¢â¬â¢s infuriation on learning the truth about her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s job. Additionally, Mildred acts unethically by entering into a loveless marriage with Monte Beragon for purposes of improving her social class to please her daughter (Mildred Pierce 1945). Ultimately, we can see Mildred supporting Beragon who is a playboy that consequently led to her financial dismal performance. As a good mother, Mildred would have focused on providing for her children but not seeking to improve her social class. Ideally, we only see Mildred focusing on providing for Veda to the neglect of the 10-year-old Kay (Mildred Pierce 1945). Response 3 Kathryn DÃ¢â¬â¢Alessandro describes how many of the visual images (cinematography, lighting) in Mildred Pierce are reminiscent of film noir. Mildred Pierce is a film noir that represents the sacrifices of a mother to provide for her ungrateful daughter. Indeed, the film has a cinematography that enhances darkness in the plot and theme. In fact, the film has inky blackness and images with long and sharp shadows (Mildred Pierce 1945). The long and sharp shadows show that the filming took place indoors or in places with low-key lighting. All these aspects explain how the visual images in Mildred Pierce are reminiscent of film noir. Response 4 Sybil DelGaudio defines the racial stereotype of the "Mammy" role in the "Mammy in Hollywood" article (DelGaudio, 2005). The character of Thelma McQueen who was MildredÃ¢â¬â¢s
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Digestion and Food Essay Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into smaller molecules so they can pass though the intestinal wall into the bloodstream and be transported throughout the body. There are seven different food groups in a balanced diet which should include Carbohydrate, fat, water, protein, fibre, vitamins and minerals. Although most foods contain these in some shape or form the foods that contain most of one type fall into that category, a chicken fillet for example would fall under the protein category because it contains more protein per hundred grams than any other nutrient. This assignment will explain the systems and processes necessary for the digestion of a Beef sandwich and a chicken Tikka Masala with rice. In the digestion of a beef sandwich containing sliced Beef, bread, butter and a chicken Tikka Masala there are different stages of where food is broken down. Enzymes are added at different times to ensure the food is absorbed properly. Digestion technically starts in the brain. Even before food touches your lips the stomach is already preparing for the food about to be ingested. The ingestion process starts with taking food into the mouth (eating and drinking). The purpose of this is so the food can be cut into smaller pieces and saliva is added before it is swallowed. This is where the first enzymes start work. There are two enzymes found in the saliva of the mouth, salivary amylase and lingual lipase. Amylase breaks down dietary carbohydrates such as monosaccharides, disaccharide sugars and complex polysaccharides (starch). MonosaccharideÃ¢â¬â¢s can be easily absorbed into the bloodstream so the others need to be broken down into these before they can be absorbed (Derrickson, Tortora 2006 p906). The salivary amylase starts to break down the polysaccharide starch found in the bread of sandwich and the rice in the chicken Tikka meal while it is being chewed. Once the food has been swallowed it slides down the throat which extends into the esophagus. The smooth muscle, mucus and secretions in the esophagus enable the food to slide down easily into the stomach. At the end of the esophagus is the lower esophageal sphincter which connects to the stomach. The stomach is a j-shaped organ where food is mixed with gastric juices secreted by the lining. The gastric juices consist of water, enzymes and hydrochloric acid to kill any harmful bacteria (Parker 2007 p176). The main enzyme in the stomach is called pepsin which specialises in the break down of protein. Gastric pepsin breaks proteins into polypeptides, pancreatic trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase which change the polypeptides into peptides (Lippincott, Williams, Wilkins 2005 p224). The proteins in the beef part of the sandwich and chicken part of the Tikka Masala are broken down by theses enzymes in order to extract the essential amino acids found in the peptides so that they can be easily absorbed in the small intestine where the food moves to after the stomach has done its work. The intestinal mucosal peptidases in the small intestine break the peptides down into amino acids allowing this to happen. As the carbohydrate (rice and bread from the two meals) enters the stomach the salivary amylase is deactivated by the ph level. As the food then enters the duodenum which is the first part of the small intestine, another type of amylase is then added from the pancreas which changes the carbohydrates into simple sugars (Parker 2007). The simple sugars are maltose lactose and sucrose. As these are pasted further into the small intestine Ã¢â¬Ëthe enzymes maltase, lactase and sucrase chop maltose, lactose and sucrose into smaller bits, more easily absorbed, which are eventually converted to glucose and absorbed through the intestinal walls into the bloodstreamÃ¢â¬â¢ (Collins 2007). Once this has happened the glucose is transported to the liver where it can be where it can be stored or distributed to cells throughout the body (Collins 2007). Fats fall under three categories, saturated (mainly found in animal products); Unsaturated (fish, nuts) and Trans fats which are mainly found in vegetable oils and processed foods made from hydrogenated vegetable fats. Fats or lipids as there also known Ã¢â¬Ëare diverse compounds that are grouped together because they are insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar solventsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bailey 2008). This means lipids take longer to digest than carbohydrates and proteins. The fat content of the two meals comes mainly from the butter of the beef sandwich and the cream of the Masala sauce. The Short chain triglycerides found in these are digested by gastric lipase in the stomach. The majority of fat digestion though is done in the small intestine where pancreatic lipase and bile salts are added. The bile salts emulsify fat into droplets which makes them water soluble allowing them to be absorbed more easily. The pancreatic lipase Ã¢â¬Ëbreaks down fats and phospholipids into a mixture of glycerol, short and long-chain fatty acids, and monoglyceridesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Lippincott, Williams, Wilkins 2005 p224). Small finger like projections on the small intestine called Villi give it a large surface area making it easy for the absorption allowing the fatty acids and monoglycerides to pass through into the blood stream. Nearly all vital nutrients from food are absorbed in the small intestine and the left over waste that passes into the large intestine afterwards is known as the chyme. The chyme descends through three main regions of the large intestine called the caecum, colon and rectum. During this journey sodium, chloride, and water are absorbed through the lining of the colon into the blood making less watery faeces to be excreted out of the anus.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Impact of the Cold War On Vietnam Economy After two protracted wars with the French colonial empire, followed by a thirty year conflict with the US superpower, Vietnam was economically devastated. However, during the following forty years Vietnam has developed a vibrant and progressive economy and gradually achieved recognition as a major economic power within the South East Asian region. Since the unification in 1975, economic growth was identified as the most important factor in the strategic development of Vietnam. However, the first decade following the end of the war with the US was one in which the Cold War had a significant impact upon the Vietnam economy. Vietnam was lead by the Communist party and aligned its political and economic policies to strict socialist principles that mirrored the Soviet model and based decision-making on strict Communist criteria; (i) State or collective ownership of production means; (ii) Government administered supply of physical input and output; (iii) Lack of business autonomy, absence of factor markets, highly regulated goods and services markets; and (iv) A bias toward heavy industry in investments. (Vo Tri Thanh and Nguyen Thu Anh, (2006) Eaber Working Paper series: Paper No.8 Institutional changes for private sector development in Vietnam. p.3) The government policy meant that Vietnam was limited to trade mainly with other Communist countries and the outcome was a dramatic decline in the Vietnam economy and increasing poverty amongst the vast majority of the population. Further conflicts with China in 1979 and Cambodia in 1978 placed Vietnam in a position of further weakness and rather than concentrate on economic recovery, the improvement of labour skills, and agricultural and consumer goods production the Government focused on the building up of heavy industry. This period of Sovietisation brought even further problems for the Vietnam economy and the virtual decade of stagnation only began to end in 1986 with the introduction of Doi Moi.(Bui That Thang, (2001)After the war: 25 years of Economic Development in Vietnam, NIRA Review , p21-22). With consumption regularly greater than national income and numerous periods of famine relieved only by foreign aid, the decade from 1976 to 1986 marked a period of economic collapse i n Vietnam, and was only ended with the introduction of Doi Moi as the point marking when Vietnam switched from the Soviet model to a drive towards a free market economy. The renovation (Doi Moi) in 1986 brought about a dramatic change for post war Vietnam, as described by Thanh and Ha ( social inequality.., chap2 p63) who declare it a real turning point in the history of Vietnams economic development . It was shifted from a centrally planned economy to a new system of a market oriented economy. An important factor to note is that the decision to move towards a free market and thus, politically and ideologically change the basis of the Vietnam economy was made prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Vietnamese Government realised that the Soviet model was failing and that Vietnam faced a major economic crisis, with acute shortages of food, basic consumer goods, and inputs to agriculture and industry, and a growing external debt.(Thanh and Anh, 2006, p.3). It was decided to establish synchronous institutions of a market economy by socialism orientation (Ibid, p.2). The end of Cold War in 1991 followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union was a new challenge to Vietnam. Fortunately, Vietnam was already reforming its political and economic sectors by the time the collapse of the Soviet Union had ended and economic growth, policies to reduce macroeconomic instability and to introduce a multi-ownership structure were already in place. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union still meant that Vietnam faced a new future without the ideologically committed support of a Super Power, isolating Vietnam from much of the international community, a problems exasperated by the continued control of the country by the Communist Party. However, this essay will argue that although the major factor that impacted on many of the Eastern European countries for example, was the decline and fall of Communist administrations, in the case of Vietnam, the Communist Party remained in power, and provided the stability and security that provided the right conditions for imp ressive levels of continuous economic growth that has made Vietnam one of the tiger economies of South East Asia. It will also argue that the political and economic future of Vietnam is dependent on Vietnam remaining one of the most politically and security stable countries in South east Asia, and that stability is borne from the Communist party remaining in control of the country. This contrasts with the former Soviet Union countries who have made their economic futures dependent on the political system rejecting all the tenets of Communism and moving not only from a centrally controlled economy but also rejecting the idea of a one- party system. However, Vietnam has remained true to its political identity as a socialist republic while allowing reforms in politics and economics that has finally brought it recognition as a truly open and free market economy that has recently been rewarded with membership of the World Trade Organisation. The essay will follow the path through this process of reform and demonstrate how the economy has managed to develop to international recognition as one of the fastest growing economies in the World and still remained Communist. The end of the Cold War was universally seen as the end of Communism, and yet, like China, the Vietnam economy has been transformed whilst not drastically reforming the political system, which has remained true to the thoughts of Ho Chi Minh and commiserate with Marxist Leninism. The Communist Party still remains in power in Vietnam and its economic success is likely to re-enforce the belief that it will retain political control over the nation for decades to come. This essay will show how the Communist Party has managed to transform its economy and remain socialist. Prior to 1980s, Vietnam was still a backward agricultural country. In addition, as a socialist country, Vietnams economy was controlled and developed by a centrally planned system modelled on the Soviet Union. The Government played the dominant role in almost all activities and people who worked for government were paid by the system of budget subsidies. And all the trading actions were dominated by large State owned Enterprises that had collectivised almost all areas of economic activity, while private business was virtually non-existent (Pham, 2005,p4). Unfortunately, because of the mismatch between the management and the actual practices of the government, the economy of Vietnam didnt achieve any of their economic targets laid down in subsequent four year plans. The leaders then realised that centrally planned system was not a good structure for Vietnams development and whilst the Soviet Union was dramatically moving towards political collapse for the same reasons, Vietnams Commun ist Party believed that its ideological control over the country through one-party rule would actually have a positive impact on economic reform by providing an environment of stability and security, whilst establish an economy based upon capitalist principles, free markets and an open door set of policies. The Communist Party identified eight major policies of reform that would be used to bring about a complete transition of the economy and these were: Almost complete price liberalization; Large devaluation and unification of the exchange rate; Increases in interest rates to positive levels in real terms; Substantial reduction in subsidies to the SOE sector; Agricultural reforms through replacement of cooperatives by households as the basic decision-making unit in production and security of tenure for farm families; Encouragement of the domestic private sector and foreign direct investment (FDI); Removal of domestic trade barriers and creation of a more open economy. (Thanh and Anh, p.6). The main point here is that these are all significant movements towards policies found in the capitalist West and were only possible in the former Soviet client states such as Poland and East Germany by also moving the political systems towards the Western democracy model. However, the Sixth Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party-1986 believed that reform could follow the basic practical policies of the Western democracies but remain true to Communism by actually increasing state control and management and macro regulation. Communism would allow stability to remain in the political arena and the economic policies would themselves be directed towards maintaining socialist targets. This mix of socialist and capitalist policies to retain some level of equity amongst the general society is one now being discussed by many of the mainland European Union members who now identify a full Communist regime as still unacceptable, but the monetarist free market economy as equally at fault in the wake of the major financial crisis at the end of 2008. However, the main contention is that Vietnam remains a one party system, but there is very little evidence of any deep protest or wish to change this system by the vast majority of the Vietnamese population. Although we are examining here the performance of Vietnam since the Cold War it is thus essential to understand that unlike Russia and the former members of the USSR, Vietnam was able to transform its economy without major political regime change. (Thang, 2001, p.3). in the following paragraphs we look at how this was possible. Up to 1990 the Doi Moi reforms did bring about a number of improvements in the economy. From 1989 onwards, Vietnam was on the way to becoming one of the three main big rice exporters in the world, many state subsidies were disappearing and SOEs were constantly warned to reform and restructure, but not immediately encouraged to denationalize. Over these years the growth rate hovered around the 4.5% mark and the reforms were only slowly impacting upon Vietnams overall economic performance. Doi Moi involved a commitment to dismantling cooperatives and shifting production away from a household economy to the private sector, whilst also restructuring the state-owned sector to be more competitive. However, the real impact of policies changes did not really take effect until post-1990.The outcome was significant development with the GDP growth averaging 8.5% from 1990 to 1997 and averaging 6.5% from 1998 to 2003. Average foreign trade and Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) improved to nearly $18 billion USD by 2007 and agricultural production doubled from 1990 to 2005, while exports reached $49 billion USD per year by 2007. The per capita income rose from $220 USD in 1994 to $832 by 2007 and industrial production went from 27.3% of GDP in 1985 to 41.6% in 2007. Many industries reached impressive rates of growth, such as in the production of oil which went from 40,000 tons in 1986 to 7.6 million tons in 1990 and 12.5 million tons in 1998 (Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thang (2007) For eign Direct Investment in Vietnam: an overview and analysis. MPRA Archive Paper No1921). In the final part of this essay we concentrate on how FDI has been example of how the Communist Party, its policies of reform and the growth of the economy have become interlinked in bringing about a successful basis for even greater levels of development in the future. The levels of development are impressive with a reduction in the inflation rate from a nightmarish 774% in 1986 to a manageable 7.5% in 2006, while also achieving a poverty reduction level of 22% in 2005 from the 58.1% recorded in 1993. By 2007 there were 7067 FDI projects with a capital of $63.5billion US. This dramatic success was as a result of the following factors: Strategic location Stable economic and political environment Large natural mineral resources A young and well-educated workforce The ability to be an export platform for US and EU markets Liberal investment environment and a commitment by the Government to economic reform. In Vietnam it is the changing attitudes of the Communist Party and the Government towards the foreign economic sector as an important step towards economic growth that has significantly assisted the improvement of the economy. Alongside this have been the increasing levels of economic competition from other countries in the region and advances in international commitments helped by a changing political and ideological approach to participating in global economic trade (2006, 180). A significant factor in encouraging this change in attitudes has been the realization that FDI has a vital role to play in the mobilization of capital, technology, organizational and managerial skills (21). The radical change in the Communist Party attitude towards FDI was the institutionalization of FDI as a separate economic sector and recognition that FDI was a vital driving forced towards the overall development of the Vietnam economy (ibid). The improvement in investment in Vietnam has been assisted by a commitment throughout business, government and society to improve the image and identity of Vietnam, not least being in its international participation in political and economic forums. (Pham Thi Huyen 2009 The Nationality Factor in Assessing Hanoi Investment Environment in Business Environment and Policies in Hanoi, Hanoi, Vietnam) A further example of well the Vietnam economy has developed under the guidance of the Communist Party is the increasing participation of Vietnam in international forums and the successful entry into international forums such as the World Trade Organisation. Viet Nam joined the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1995, and committed to AFTA prior to the Enterprise Law reform period. Viet Nam also joined APEC in 1998.Vietnam has been an official member of WTO since 2007. Before that, there had been an increasingly strong public policy commitment to joining the WTO in recent years, and references were made to the need to reform to join the WTO in the policy debate on private sector development during the 2nd half of the 1990s. The enterprise reforms have been consistent with efforts to join the WTO, and the desire to join WTO has strengthened the hand of those pushing for improvements in the regulatory environment for business during the reform of the Enterprise Law . How ever, it is difficult to assess the extent to which the desire to join the WTO provided impetus for the Enterprise Law reforms Results, Challenges and Prospects, Vietnams Socio-Economic Development: A Social Science Review, No.31, Autumn Doanh, Le Dang, (2002), Foreign Direct Investment in Viet Nam: While it is difficult to identify connections between aspirations to join regional and international bodies and the Enterprise Law reforms, contacts with regional and international bodies have almost certainly helped the reform process. The economic performance of other ASEAN members and China are important benchmarks with which Viet Nams policy makers often compare their own performance. Even prior to joining ASEAN, Vietnamese officials went on study tours to ASEAN member countries to study issues related to improving the enabling environment for business development. A crucial development in the reform of the economy of Vietnam was the new Bilateral Trade Agreement (BTA) between Viet Nam and the USA, which was signed in December 2001, well after the major Enterprise Law reforms had been implemented. The private sector reforms implemented during the 2nd half of the 1990s almost certainly helped the process of reaching agreement on the BTA. This new agreement marked an important watershed in the relations not only between Vietnam and the US, but also the rest of the world. The signing of the agreement between Vietnam and its former enemy signified a leap forwards in the status of Vietnam and officially marked the end of most political and economic hostilities between the two former enemies. However, its signing was predicated on the absolute commitment of Vietnam to continue economic reform and also suggested that political reform; especially in democratization of Vietnam was almost certainly on the cards for the future (Ibid). Thus, Vietnam is a special case to examine in the study of the impact of the end of the Cold War upon Communist and former Communist states. In the case of Vietnam, not only have they remained under the one party rule of the Communist Party, they have also successfully reformed their economy, with the Communist Government able to provide the right levels of stability and security to continue to develop in the future. Thus, it is also a case of how the ideology of a country and its economic reform are linked, but the case of Vietnam it is an example of a country being ruled consistently under the socialist thought of Ho Chi Minh, maintaining one party rule but was also able to transform an economy from state central control to a free market. It is also known as a peaceful, secure and safe environment in the centre of a South East Asian region. A region that is more often now identified with the increasing problems of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism, such as in Thailand and Malays ia. While economic growth continues, the levels of extreme poverty are continually being lowered and the wealth of the economic success is to some extent spread down the masses through policies based on socialist principles, the one party rule of the Communist Party in Vietnam is likely to continue Ref. Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thang (2007) Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam: an overview and analysis. MPRA Archive Paper No1921) Le Dang, (2002), Results, Challenges and Prospects, Vietnams Socio-Economic Development: A Social Science Review, No.31, Autumn Doanh, Foreign Direct Investment in Viet Nam: Le The Gioi (2004), Moi truong dau tu tai Viet Nam qua goc nhin cua nha dau tu nuoc ngoai, Le The Gioi, Journal of Economics and Forecast, vol 1, 2004. Pham Thi Huyen (2009) The Nationality Factor in Assessing Hanoi Investment Environment in Business Environment and Policies in Hanoi, Hanoi, Vietnam Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thang (2007) Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam: an overview and analysis. MPRA Archive Paper No1921 Bui That Thang, (2001)After the war: 25 years of Economic Development in Vietnam, NIRA Review , p21-22). Vo Tri Thanh and Nguyen Thu Anh, (2006) Eaber Working Paper series: Paper No.8 Institutional changes for private sector development in Vietnam.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Social Inequality and Insecurity in Canada ASSIGNMENT-2 Social inequality illustrates a scenario in a society where there is disparity that has limiting effect on a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s social status and class. Inequality, in this reference, refers to the differences in status, experience, and outcomes among various groups of individuals in the society. The social inequality covers aspects like right to vote for every adult individual, right to speech, right to access property and right to education, quality of healthy living, quality of housing, traveling, vacationing and other social goods and services. It can also be viewed in the quality of family and neighborhood life, occupation, job satisfaction, and right to credit. Social insecurity refers to a condition in a society where people do not receive benefits because of their employment program. For instance privilege for retirement pensions, disability insurance and employment guarantee program. The provision of services may vary from country to country which may include health care, financial support during unemployment or retirement, safety at work. Insecurity rises from temporary work that does not give a commitment by the agency for permanent employment. This does not provide a reliable level of income or work for the workers. Temporary workers face dismissal at work place and lack job security. A recent study conducted in Canada revealed that the main difference between inequality and insecurity. Inequality describes the situation where the workers with equal labor productivity, ability, education, training and experience are treated unequal. They face inequality in employment selection procedure, job promotion, level of wages, training and other areas. However, insecurity is a situation where an employee has a perception that his or her job is uncertain and may come to an end sooner or later. This perception stands as a threat caused by the instability and unsteadiness of job or unsatisfied for possibly being fired at any time. The major causes of inequality and insecurity are different. Work inequality is affected characteristics like racism, gender inequality, skin color, age, family background, tradition, religion, physical fitness and the nationality of a person. However, work insecurity depends on work background, job importance, job content, work environment, job sat isfaction and career development. The effect of social inequality and insecurity on Canadian society is the division of labor market into good jobs and bad jobs. Social Inequality is dominated by professional and skilled workers and social insecurity is dominated by women and racist groups. The bad jobs provide little security of job and nearly about one tenth of the Canadian population is engaged in it. The birth of non-standard jobs is due to inequality as there is vulnerability of unemployment. Therefore, people hold multiple jobs at a time for survival. Temporary work is also a form of non-standard jobs wherein the job is dependent on the season and terms of contract with the company. A new type of agencies have been started which act as a broker between the employee and the employer. These agencies make arrangements for the temporary positions and individuals seeking jobs. The agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s income is derived from the difference between what it charges the company and what it pays the individual worker. Self-em ployment is referred to as a means to achieve flexibility and freedom from the regular unemployment, low wages, and insecurity. It is segmented between a primary and a secondary market. In the primary self-employment market, companies run on full-time basis and often have few employees who have access to the benefits. This market segment mostly consists of older men who all have an established network of potential clients. In the secondary self-employment market, there is more uncertainty of work, lack of control of labor market and protection and inadequate incomes. Studies have revealed that insecurity in Canada has increased over the past 20 years. The possibility of unemployment is a significant reason for insecurity in Canada. It varies from workers in permanent full-time jobs to workers in temporary positions in contract. Ã¢â¬Å"ChurnÃ¢â¬ refers to the very high turnover rates associated with certain occupations. A number of jobs, such as contract work and seasonal jobs show insecurity in their nature. Unemployment risk is higher for working individuals (25-64 years age) having a high school diploma or nothing. Unemployment risk is also higher for those in the primary sector than in the tertiary sector. But some areas of the tertiary sector, such as health and education, show low unemployment and infrequent job changes. While jobs like in hospitality and food services show higher unemployment and high turnover rates due to seasonal variations. In 2010, minimum wage levels ranged from $7.5 per hour in British Columbia to $9.5 per hour in Ontario. An individual earning $8.00 per hour and working forty hours per week will earn $16000 per year, if that individual does not take any off from work for the entire year. This individual living anywhere in Canada likely to have housing or other living expenses, job changes and will live below the low-income cut-off rate. The major causes of inequality in Canada were studied and deduced as follows:- Women: Women have always played a key role in the economy, yet their work, whether paid or unpaid, has never been recognized. Considerably, WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the labor market has hiked since the end of World War II. The reasons being: desire for economic independence, less number of children per family, changed marital status, better access to education. Radicalized groups: The employment patterns of radicalized groups are similar to those of women. They experience a low average income, low participation rates, and higher unemployment rates. They also are less involved into white-collar jobs and are more in to the pink and blue-collar jobs. These groups of workers are more employed in non-union positions. They are likely to be absent in professional and managerial occupations. Persons with disabilities:- The majority of these people are excluded from school, work and society. This group has low participation and employment opportunities and the rate of low incomes is twice that of persons with no disabilities. They face more of the fluctuations in the labor market and social exclusion. Young workers, Aboriginal persons and old workers: Aboriginal persons have very low employment level because of the differences in education levels. As increasing numbers of Aboriginal persons are getting their post-secondary education, they find themselves alongside others who are seeking work and are not included in Aboriginal organizations. The labor market patterns of older section of people are also changing particularly due to the factors like loss of jobs, pensions and mandatory retirement. The income level due to these conditions has not allowed them to purchase property or save money for retirement. Young workers constitute another group who face unemployment in Canada due to lack of experience which plays the major reason for their condition. Fig 1:-The above graph is a study conducted in year 2009 showing the low income rate among various countries using MBM. Fig 2:-The above graph shows the income gap between the rich and the poorest groups in Canada over the past 10 years. The effective policies brought in by the Canadian government to reduce inequality in Canada are changes in wages and salaries distribution. The changes are as follows: Changes in work environment, part-time working opportunities, self-employed and non-standard labor contracts and an increase in division of work hours. Technological changes with the benefits of technical progress among the high-skilled. Regulatory policies targeted at promoting growth and productivity, which enhanced both employment and income inequality. Re-distribution through taxes and benefits in mitigating income inequality within all countries. Tax provisions being reviewed on top-income households to ensure the tax system is progressive and fair. Better education facilities for certain groups in Canada, certainly among Aboriginals. This is a major issue of concern requiring more efficient policy action. REFERENCES 1. http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/hot-topics/caninequality.aspx 2. http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2013/09/26/growth_of_inequality_in_canada _cannot_be_denied.html 3. http://www.mqup.ca/social-inequality-in-canada-products-9780886292799.php 4. http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/403/HUMA/Reports/RP4770921/humarp07 /humarp07-e.pdf 5. http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/594ENG.pdf 6. http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/403/HUMA/Reports/RP4770921/humarp07 /humarp07-e.pdf 7. http://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/rise-canadas-richest-1 8. John Loxley, Public Service, Private Profits: The Political Economy of Public/Private Partnerships in Canada
Monday, August 19, 2019
In the book entitled Canada, NATO and The Bomb: The Western Alliance in Crisis by Tom Keating and Larry Pratt the main issue discussed was CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s position in Europe, North America and their view on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It went into specific issues dealing with political tension within Canada and tension outside Canada with other countries. It went through the years of different political parties and how they dealt with the matters of NATO. It states CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion dealing with matters such as the alliance, war, and decision making with other countries involved in NATO. The book came across CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making as though Canada went along with the decisions made by other countries. Canada, NATO, and The Bomb is not a book to inform it is a history book. It addressed issues that had happened previously and stated the type of involvement Canada had in it. In most cases, a book dealing with these sensitive issues, which involved other countries, would provide the pros and cons but in this case only the cons of NATO and the alliance were provided. This book showed NATO as being an organization that is very unorganized. It came across as though the countries involved did not respect each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and opinions. It dwells on the mistakes made by countries for example the United States, various other European countries. It made it seem as though NATO was in conflict within each other making the organization as a whole seem incapable of compromise and the defence of anything. At many points NATO wanted to vote the United States out of the organization but this obviously never happened. At one point it was a problem Ã¢â¬Å"about the possibility of being dominated and ultimately overwhelmed by too close an association with the United StatesÃ¢â¬ (pg.30) for Canada and their relationship. The themes of the book were Canada and its position in NATO and NATOÃ¢â¬â¢s and its position in the world. The theme was not presented clearly. One of the points were Canada and the main focus was any and everything but Canada. It stated over and over again that Canada did not approve of very much but that was it. It came across as if Canada was only complaining and nothing was being done. NATO and its position are expressed as only conflicts within the congress. It was giving history presentation information dealing with NATO, its purpose and its views on important topics.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"A good Man is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ The reason a good man is hard to find is because if ones standards are to high their goal is almost impossible to reach. The grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset was still in the past she falls into the old southern woman stereotype. The Southern woman wanted a religious, upstanding southern gentleman and in this day and age that type of individual is hard to find. The grandmother has a strong faith in god and it affects every aspect of her life. The misfit doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in god he believes that god through everything off balance by claming to raise the dead but no one can prove it so therefore he has no faith, this totally contradicts the grandmothers beliefs. What I drew from the statement Ã¢â¬Å"somebody there to shoot her every minute of her lifeÃ¢â¬ is that as soon as death was near, the old lady changed from a bitter old racist to an understanding and compassionate southern lady. This is a direct knock on southern life and how many older people in the south hide behind the faÃ §ade of religion and manners to disguise their racist and bitter ways. If someone had threatened her every minute of her life, then she could have been nice all the time, not just when it mattered. Poetry Paper The purpose of this project is to help you develop an appreciation of one author's ability to involve you in deep reading of literature. Write a 4-5 page paper on a short story or novel by a writer from the list below. (You may not choose a story we have discussed in class.) Pay careful attention to, and write in depth about, Ã · plot (don't simply retell the story) Ã · character development (what does the author do to make us care what happens to the main character) Ã · figurative language (how does the author's use irony, symbolism, etc. help create deeper levels of understanding of the theme the author is exploring) You are responsible for researching the writer/stories in at least two academic journal articles. You may not simply go out to the Internet for your sources, they will not be credited. You may also not simply provide a quote or two from the articles. You must demonstrate that you have read the articles in their entirety and how they have led to an understanding of the writer and/or the stories.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Incivility thrives through our modern society and into the classrooms and campuses of colleges. Incivility can automatically be thought of as the improper behavior or insulting other people based of race, looks, ect. However, incivility exists in classrooms where the professor experiences disrespect in multiple forms. Colleges obtain a policy towards incivility and proper conduct, however the importance of respect and civility in the actual classroom can be found to be left out. Civility should be a requirement for campuses to preserve courtesy and respect amongst both students and teachers. In particular, California State University San Marcos has a Standards of Student Contact that lists expectations to avoid situations such as cheating, being involved with drugs, lying to police authorities, ect. These policies revolve around acts that result in major punishment, and does not include civility issues of how students treat each other on campus, or more so the respect that should be maintained in a classroom. The importance of civility on campus and in classrooms should be magnified to create a comfortable, mature environment for students and faculty. Professors notice a trend in incivility among students including bullying, disrespect towards professors, and a lack of kindness. These factors are consistently ignored and are not given enough attention. Civility on campus is an unrecognized policy that needs to gain awareness. New college students enter their schools with an attitude of entering the real world of adulthood and independence. Unlike high school, college students go through the process of paying for tuition and other college fees to obtain their desired college degree. As a result of acknowledging their payments towards their classes, a loss of conduct can occur in classrooms. College has a reputation of more freedom when it comes to classrooms. College students know that the classes they go to are being paid for by themselves. Because of this students feel that their choices in college are their own responsibility. They are adults who need to tend for themselves. Although high schools and colleges share a commonality in terms of shaping oneÃ¢â¬â¢s future, college is its own level of obtaining education. Once a student begins his or her college career, a new world is unraveled. Many of these newcomers in college are not fully aware of the challenges that they are about to face, thus resulting to misfortunate outcomes that would affect them later on in their lives. There are many responsibilities that need tending once you are a college student. For one, the parental supervision that once existed has disappeared, and many simple tasks and duties that seemed unimportant became major responsibilities that require attention. Paying for the necessities that come with the lifestyle of being self-dependent is basically a college studentÃ¢â¬â¢s standard of living. Unlike high school, college students go through the process of paying for tuition and other college fees to obtain their desired college degree. With that said, they are often faced with the sacrifice of leaving class in order for them to go to work, which ultimately is their temporary solution of funding their tuition. Aside from the financial aspect of being a college student, it is also important to acknowledge the fact that they are fully fledged adults. Furthermore, they are under their own rule, thus whatever decision they decide upon affects their own lives, not the professor. Also, college has standards that are different to that of high schools. Students have the option of leaving whenever they please, because as mentioned earlier, they have many responsibilities that often force them to do so. Though many would concede of such reasons that explain the responsibilities that college students deal on a regular basis, it disregards the larger matter and that is the practice of becoming an adult and how to handle the life ahead of you. This, in fact, is the major weakness of this argument because it only focuses on the notion that is currently present. It neglects to mention that college is a template of adulthood, and that it is often hard to manage because its purpose is to shape you for the future challenges that you may face in life. It is basically set to difficult levels so that it would enable you to become accustomed of the adult lifestyle. Students can misinterpret the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"freedomÃ¢â¬ in college. Although college is a big step into the adult world versus high school, they may take advantage of that and bring disrespect to campus and the classroom. Maria Shine Stewart notes in her article Ã¢â¬Å"Cropping Out IncivilityÃ¢â¬ how unkindness and hate on campus can escalate to violence. Going into college, some students may feel like they can reform themselves and misuse their high confidence. Immaturity from high school can drag into college and cause bigger problems and even bullying. In high school petty arguments come up, but in college where everyone is expected to act like mature adults words can be taken very offensively and the outcome can be more serious. College is a place for students who want to grow educationally, not a place to be disturbed by those few people who bring interruptions and unnecessary drama. Civility on campus should be an important subject advertised to ensure a pleasant environment for the students to grow successfully. Going from high school to college is a big deal for incoming students. College has grown a reputation of a place to get educated with more freedom. In high school students are used to following strict rules of no cell phones, attendance, and proper behavior. Although college is a place for adults and allows more freedom than high school, a code of conduct has been twisted. Because students pay for college, they feel they have permission to handle the way they learn on their own terms. Leaving class for example is an idea brought to students that is Ã¢â¬Å"o. kÃ¢â¬ since what they learn or do not learn is on their own shoulders. However, students fail to realize that professors work hard to ensure their lectures and notes push their students in the right direction to succeed in their class. The whole point of a professors job is to educate their students so they can pass their class and move forward. Leaving during class is an unprincipled disturbance to the other students and professor. The professor gives students their time to drive to the campus and try to help educate their students, and leaving in the middle is disrespecting their efforts. Some professors are lenient and allow students to get away with small misbehaviors such as eating in class, texting, talking, and more. Students take their quiet disregards as permission to continue, not realizing the disturbance and disrespect they are giving their professor. Most high schools have a strict no cell phone code, and students entering college believe that cell phones are okay to be freely handled even in class. Even though some professors write in their syllabus Ã¢â¬Å"no cell phonesÃ¢â¬ , students still feel that texting under their desk will be okay with the teacher. Although some professors may look the other way, students fail to realize that professors know when students are occupied with something unrelated to the lecture. By being occupied by something separate from the actual class discourages the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s effort on trying to help their students succeed. Students do not recognize that the disrespect towards professors does effect them. Thomas Benton notes in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Remedial Civility TrainingÃ¢â¬ how he puts in effort to Ã¢â¬Å"make my classes interesting and relevantÃ¢â¬ only to have students disregard his class and only see it as an requirement. Civility should be enforced in the classroom to give that respect to professors and other students who are there to succeed in their education. Civility has become so flexible and twisted that the relationship between student and professor has transformed. Professors should be treated with respect, just as any educator feels they deserve to be treated as. However, some students find themselves able to mistreat their professors to an extent. In Marilyn GilroyÃ¢â¬â¢s journal article Ã¢â¬Å"Colleges Grappling with IncivilityÃ¢â¬ she maintains how Ã¢â¬Å"Faculty members have reported numerous confrontations with students over gradesÃ¢â¬ and mistreatment towards professors over grades can become threatening. Although Gilroy writes how a majority of faculty members do not experience threats over grades or a students performance, the fact that even a small percentage receive violent threats is disturbing. A separation between professor and student should be established to prevent such incivility in that relationship. A professor should not receive such extreme blame for a students performance, even if the professor is rightful to be blamed. A discussion would be appropriate rather than a hasty act of threats and accusations. Professors should be allowed the right to preserve the respect in the student-educator relationship. The relationship between the professor and student should be used towards promoting civility in the classroom. To prevent students feeling less involved and under complete authority of the professor, discussion and communication through the class room would produce civility. Mary Deane SorcinelliÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"Dealing with Troublesome Behavior In The ClassroomÃ¢â¬ suggests seeking feedback from students, or allowing classroom policies to be open for discussion amongst students. Sorcinelli claims that by giving the student a voice in the rules, appreciation will be given to the policies set by the professor. Compromise can create a more civil relationship for the students and professor. Incivility is amongst college campuses in multiple forms. Civility should be something strong and advertised on campus to ensure a comfortable learning environment is established. Students should not have to suffer through misdemeanor of other peers. Immaturity and bullying is something college students should not be dealing with when they put their time and money towards their education. Although incivility is for the most part under control on campuses, proper behavior in classrooms has been disregarded. Professors are expressing a concern over students actions during their class time. Students find that because they are paying for college, they have more freedom. Although freedom is given, a certain conduct should be kept within the classroom. Paying attention, being prepared, and attendance should be something students can handle on their own. However, professors notice a lack of civility within their own classroom. Civility should be a policy in colleges to ensure that professors and peers receive respectful treatment.
AUDITING I. Definitions * Auditing, in a general sense, is a systematic and critical evaluation of the financial position, operating systems, and results of operation of an audited entity. * A systematic process of obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events to ascertain degree of correspondence between those assertions and established criteria and communicating the results to interested user. The analytical and systematic examination and verification of financial transactions, operation, accounts, and reports of any government agency for the purpose of determining the accuracy, integrity, and authenticity, and satisfying the requirements of law, rules, and regulations. State audit relies on the provisions of law; its authority and limitations are prescribed by law and it is conducted in accordance with law. The 1987 Constitution and related laws set the scope, powers, functions, and jurisdiction of government auditing. Auditing in Public AdministrationState auditing (along with accounting) may be considered as the control and accountability component of fiscal administration cycle. * As a control mechanism, auditing ensures the proper and legal utilization and management of fiscal resources in accordance with sound financial management principles, accounting and auditing standards, and applicable laws and regulations. * As an accountability component, it seeks to ensure that public officials entrusted with functions and resources are made responsible for the performance and results of operation of their office. In the Fiscal administration cycle, auditing also provides inputs to the next phase which is planning. Audit reports contain vital information on the results of operation of agencies and recommendations to improve their performance. Auditing and Accounting Accounting * Accounting is a discipline which provides financial and other information essential to the efficient conduct and evaluation of the activities of an organization. Is concerned with constructing from a mass of transactions entered into by a firm or agency during a certain period, financial statements, results of transactions (in terms of profit and loss), and current financial position, through the interpretation, summarization, and compilation of information. Auditing * Is primarily concerned with analyzing whether or not the financial statements reasonably represent the result of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. II. TYPES OF AUDITING A. Timing Pre-audit Ã¢â¬â The auditor reviews a transaction (a contract for janitorial services, for example) even before such services are rendered. The auditor also gives his tentative approval for payment of the services by the agency. * Post-audit Ã¢â¬â The auditor reviews and approves the transaction after the services have been rendered and payment has been made In both cases, the review may consist of the following: * Determining whether all relevant laws, rules and regulations have been observed in the transaction. Physical inspection of supplies or equipment. * Checking whether all necessary documents are submitted and properly accomplished. * Determining whether the required authority or approval has been secured. * Checking mathematical accuracy. B. Organizational Status of Auditor * Internal Audit * The internal auditor undertakes an analytical view of balances disclosed in the financial statements to determine that the information contained in the statements is consistent internally, with budget accounts, and with those of prior years.He may also insist, in an advisory capacity, in adopting basic organizational regulations, preparing rationalization proposals, and recommending measures to improve the structural and procedural systems of the agency. * In small agencies, the internal audit is usually conducted by accounting or controller units * In large organization, it is done by a separate internal audit staff which reports directly to the head of agenc y, the finance office, or corporate board of directors, in the case of corporations. * External Audit * Is performed by auditor external to or independent of the audited organization. In the Philippine state audit context, it is the audit performed by the COA auditors. * In commercial audit, it is conducted by independent certified public accountants on private business organizations primarily to express an opinion on the fairness, consistency, and conformity of financial statements to generally accepted accounting principles, for submission to management, government regulatory agencies, stockholders, and other interested parties. Under the Constitution, external audit by the COA cannot be replaced by internal audit (or any private external audit).While an internal auditor may conduct audit of his agency (or private independent auditors perform external audit), only COA auditor is authorized to conduct government audit. External audit as performed by the COA Includes a comprehensive review of an agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal audit services, as part of its audit function of evaluating of agency internal control systems. C. Audit Scope * Fiscal Audit: Financial and Compliance Fiscal audit is the Ã¢â¬Å"traditional financial auditÃ¢â¬ in government. It is the combination of financial audit and compliance audits. Financial audit of government transactions is conducted to determine whether: Financial operations are conducted in accordance with applicable laws, rules and regulations, and accounting and auditing standards. * Whether an agency financial statement presents fairly and accurately the financial position of the agency in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The auditor determines whether the agency is maintaining effective control over revenues, expenditures, assets and liabilities, whether financial statements are fairly presented, and if financial reports contain accurate, reliable and useful information.Compliance audit, on the other hand, is an evaluation of the extent to which the agency has complied with pertinent laws, policies, and rules, and regulations in the conduct of its operation. The auditor tests the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial transactions and specific program, function or activity to determine their legality or regularity. He may for instance; check whether the agency has not violated pertinent law in incurring significant unrecorded liabilities. * Performance Audit: Efficiency, Economy, EffectivenessA performance audit is a constructive examination and evaluation of the financial and operational performance of an organization, program, function or activity with the object of identifying opportunities for grater economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in agency. Economy and efficiency audits determine: * Whether the agency is managing and utilizing its resources (personnel, property, funds) economically and efficiently * The causes of inefficiencies or uneconomical practices * Whether the agency has complied with the laws and regulations concerning matters of efficiency and economyEffectiveness or Ã¢â¬Å"program resultsÃ¢â¬ audit determines. * Whether the desired results or benefits established by the legislature or other * Whether the agency has considered alternatives that might lead to desired results at lower cost Special/Other Audits * Subsidy Audit (in the Constitution, PD1445) * Levy Audit (in the Constitution, PD1445) III. THE AUDIT PROCESS A. The Audit Cycle Ã¢â¬â The state audit cycle consist of seven phases: * Phase I. Preliminary survey of the agency or audited entity The preliminary survey is conducted to acquire a working knowledge of the audited agency and its legal, policy, and administrative environment.The auditor gathers general background information on the agency and its operations after which he defines the scopes of his audit. The auditor may perform the following activities: * Interviews with agency officials to obtain general information * Obtain basic documents on agency activities, objectives, policies, standards, procedure, etc. * Physical inspection of agency facilities, office, etc. Ideally, the survey should provide information on: * Laws, policies, and rules, and regulations applicable to the agency * Brief history and goals or purpose of the agency Agency organization, functions, staff, regional offices, and operating systems * Nature, investments and location of agency assets * General objectives and policies * Operating methods and standards used in measuring or evaluating agency operations and performance * Description of major, existing problems * Copies of internal agency reports, especially internal audit reports * Phase II. Review of Legal and Policy Framework The information gathered from the preliminary survey are reviewed in order to obtain a general knowledge of the legislation and policies applicable to agency objectives, policies, programs, and operating standards. Phases III. Review and Evaluation of In ternal Control System In this phase, the auditor reviews the procedures and practices actually applied by the agency in processing its transactions in order to establish: * The actual means and methods in carrying out operations * Appropriateness and utility of various steps in the processes * The results of operations or transactions relative to agency objectives, legal and policy requirements, and standards * The effectiveness of the internal control system and its various componentsThe review and evaluation of the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal control system is to: * Identify major critical areas that would warrant more detailed examination * To determine the type of test to be used in the closer examination of such areas later on * Phase IV Ã¢â¬â In-depth Examination of Problem Areas, Data-gatherings, Analysis, and Evaluation In this phase, the auditor concentrates on audit findings on the problem areas in terms of: * Compliance with or adherence to legal and policy mandate, presc riptions, and requirements; * Goals and objectives-achievement Operational efficiency, economy, and effectiveness in the use of human, material, and financial resources; and * Propriety, accuracy, reliability, and usefulness of financial records and reports, including the effectiveness of control over the latter In-depth examination may involve reviewing agency reports, books, files, records, and such other relevant documents and analyzing, evaluating, verifying and confirming their content through enquiries, inspection, or observation.Where it becomes impossible or impractical to examine all operations and transactions, the auditor conducts reviews and tests on a selective basis, based on his professional judgment and on the adequacy of internal control systems. The auditor develops the factual and documentary evidence to support his audit findings, conclusions, and recommendations. He analyzes the data gathered and determines the causes and effects of the problems, and their signi ficance to agency operations. He also determines whether the agency needs to take corrective action and recommend the appropriate solutions.The auditor must alert agency officials on any deficiencies discovered during audit to enable management to take immediate corrective action. * Phase V. Preparation and Presentation of Draft Report A draft audit report is prepared based on the findings and recommendations formulated in the previous phase. The report is then presented to agency officials for their review and comments. * Phase VI. Finalization of Audit Report After the meeting, the auditor finalizes the audit report.In writing the final report, he has to observe certain principles or standards of report writing. The scope of the audit should be stated clearly and concisely in the report and any limitations should be explicitly mentioned Findings and conclusions should be adequately supported by factual documentary evidence. The recommendations should be clearly identified and shou ld be realistic. Previous audit recommendations which have been unimplemented and the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s reason for such should also be noted. * Phase VII. Follow-up on the Implementation of Audit RecommendationsAudit recommendations, such as suggested improvements, proposed adjustments in the accounts, correction or discontinuance of malpractices, solution to existing problems, etc. should be followed-up B. General Objectives, Principles and Standards * General Objectives There are many objectives of state audit and all these relate to the concept of public accountability. Public accountability is central to government audit as it is anchored on the tenet that public officials, as stewards of public office must give a full and public accounting of the manner with which they utilize the powers and expend the resources entrusted to them. Establishing accountability for financial material and human resources of an agency * Establishing accountability for compliance with applicable laws. Policies, rules and regulations * The efficient, economical and effective operations of the agency * Specific Objectives The specific objectives of state auditing also include the following, as enunciated in the Lima Declaration of Guidelines on Auditing Precepts * Proper and effective use of public funds * Development of sound financial management Orderly execution of administrative activities * Communication of information to public authorities and the public through publication of audit reports * Audit Principles and Standards * Audit principles and standards serve to guide the auditor in conducting his audit with integrity, objectivity, independence, and efficiency * Audit standards deal with the quality with which the audit is performed based on the professional and ethical qualifications of the auditor and his exercise of judgment in the course of audit.