Monday, September 30, 2019
The current crisis in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s financial system has left the construction industry facing its toughest challenges for a generation. Salaries are falling; job cuts are predicted to reach 400,000 in England alone; and the impacts look set to get much worse before they get better. No country is immune from the impact of this and the UK, and much of the rest of the world, is already in, or about to enter a recession. Even buoyant construction markets such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are starting to feel the effect, with construction growth rate expected to slow from 20% to 15% in 2009 (Al Mal Capital). The United Nations (UN) predicts world economic output will shrink by as much as 0.4% in 2009 (UNÃ¢â¬â¢s World Economic Situation and Prospects Report, 2009). These are serious times, however, the industry needs to be prepared to contribute to the recovery by retraining workers, maintaining the highest of standards of quality and supporting innovation. Construction professionals must not lose sight of their commitment to issues of sustainability, health and safety, ethical business practices and improved building standards. These will future-proof the industry and allow it to grow after the economy recovers. Companies seeking to find an extra edge in an increasingly competitive marketplace are likely to employ greater innovation as they look to become more efficient. This could have far reaching benefits for the industry in the future, where innovation has never been more vital. Construction Output It is clear that construction is in for a period of deflation. Forecasts suggest that there will be a 7% decline in output over the next three years, however, this figure is heavily contingent on Government spending coming through as planned (Construction Products Association). In the second quarter of 2008 new order figures were at their lowest level since 2004; 14% below the average last year. Housing orders were down 30%, private industrial orders by 36% and commercial orders by more than Ã £1bn from 2007 (Construction Products Association). A rapid decline in private work has been partly propped up by more public sector spending, however the outlook for the private sector over the next few quarters is set to get worse. The Olympics will prop up the industry to a certain extent but the cessation of office development will have a much greater effect. Overall, even if all public sector funding was spent next year, the construction industry in 2009 would still see the largest percentage of fall in output since the early nineties, when over 500,000 left the industry. This has been brought about by the sharp fall in private sector investment in construction Ã¢â¬â offices, retail, entertainment, as well as private house building. Public Sector Spending The GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to bring forward Ã £3bn of capital spending on infrastructure was cautiously welcomed by the construction industry (Pre-budget statement, November 2008). Given the extremely high levels of borrowing that the Treasury is expecting over the next few years, there is a risk that Government will fund later debt repayments with cuts in capital spending on construction further down the track. There is also a risk that delays in the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s existing build programmes will lead to increased under-spend. Programmes such as the Building Schools for the Future Programme have already fallen behind schedule, and reports suggest that this is as a result of bureaucracy rather than lack of funding. Business Finance and Loss of Confidence According to the Confederation of British Industry (CBI), more than half of British firms have seen a decline in the ease of access to capital since the onset of the credit crunch; 30% of businesses have been, or expect to be refused new credit; and 78% expect business conditions to be worse next year. The Government must urgently take steps to unblock the financial markets and improve the flow of capital to business. The fiscal mitigation measures that were recently announced by the Chancellor (Pre-budget statement, November 2008) were not sufficient to address the underlying loss of confidence facing all UK businesses (and people). More innovative ways could be investigated by Government to help the industry survive, such as providing credit insurance; relaxing bonding requirements on public projects; setting up project bank accounts; and providing tax breaks/concessions for sustainable construction R&D. At present, the latter has effectively ground to a halt largely as a result of the deeply entrenched uncertainty that abound. Jobs & Loss of Skills Almost 400,000 jobs in the construction sector in England could be lost over the next two years (assuming GDP shrinks by 2.2% in 2009 and rises by 0.75% in 2010). It is predicted that the worst affected area will be London, where 23% of workers are expected to be made redundant (Public and Corporate Economic Consultants for the Local Government Association). On the other hand, Eastern Europeans are responding to the downturn in the market by returning home, and this has eased the severity of the job situation in many instances. Given the forecasts for construction output in 2009, it could be assumed that jobs in the public sector may offer more security than those in the private sector. This reinforces the need for Government to establish how an accelerated public spending package will be implemented. It is essential that the government makes sure timetables donÃ¢â¬â¢t slip, and that it does what it can to speed up deal flows and bidding times. Through no fault of its own, the Construction Industry, in particular the house-building Industry, is having to dramatically re-structure and down-size merely to survive. The loss of technical resource and therefore expertise has been considerable and there are already signs that an upturn in the fortunes of the UK economy will not see these people return. This is a real concern, particularly as the science and technology that underpins UK sustainable construction is becoming even more complex and at a time when we need experienced people if we are to meet our sustainability objectives. Furthermore, it is not something that can be addressed overnight by short-term training and/or education. Procurement It has been reported that the credit crunch is likely to reverse the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s trend towards negotiated contracts and partnering. Instead, there could be a swing back towards single-stage, lowest bid tenders aimed at achieving the lowest possible outturn cost. While single-stage tendering may be seen as a quick fix during the economic downturn, this does not take the long-term view, nor adequately consider best value for money. It does however provide a more risky financial environment which is likely to become a fertile breading ground for claims and liquidations as contractors cut their profits to secure work in a decreasing market. Partnering has proved itself as the most efficient way of undertaking all kinds of construction work including new buildings and infrastructure, alterations, refurbishment and maintenance. Indeed the figures show that that in the four years from 2001 to 2005, Ã £700m of public money was saved, and the potential for two and a half billion in savings, would have been feasible had best practice been adopted across the board. When times are hard, best practice is at its most crucial to successful business. Fraud An unexpected knock-on effect of the credit crunch has been a dramatic rise in worldwide construction fraud. Evidence suggests that the average construction companyÃ¢â¬â¢s loss to fraud has increased by 69% in the last year (Kroll Global Fraud Report), driven largely by tough economic conditions. A total of 890 senior executives participated in the worldwide survey, which covered 10 industries, with just over one-quarter based in Europe. More than 95% of the construction companies surveyed said they had suffered from corporate fraud in the past three years Ã¢â¬â up by 77% from last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s survey. Most frequent types of fraud occurring in the construction industry include theft of physical assets or stock, financial mismanagement, management conflict of interest, and corruption and bribery. Companies will need to be even more vigilant than usual to reduce fraud in the construction industry. Sustainability Opinion is divided about the impact of the credit crunch on the sustainability agenda. A recent survey from the UK Green Building Council (UK GBC) suggests that while the conventional building industry suffers, the sustainable building sector is experiencing growth. Asked whether the financial crisis has impacted on their organisation in tackling sustainability, 56% of UK GBC members said sustainability had become a bigger focus. Only 18% said the credit crunch has had an adverse effect on efforts to address sustainability. On the other hand, a survey of small-medium sized contractors suggests that tough government targets on sustainable construction are being missed, as buildings fail to achieve the standards set by the Code for Sustainable Homes (National Federation of Builders). The survey revealed that contractors appeared to be quite knowledgeable about the driving issues and regulations for sustainability, but in over half (53%) of projects tendered for, sustainability was not a client requirement. Either way, it is important that new buildings, not least those procured by government, are of the highest possible environmental standards. Green building can be at the heart of a low-carbon economic recovery, boosting growth and creating green collar jobs. This is particularly true in existing homes and buildings, where we need a massive programme of refurbishment to cut carbon, reduce energy bills and produce more comfortable places to live and work. By continuing to build using sustainable technologies the built environment will be preserved for future generations, and a proven record in sustainable design will be invaluable in gaining new contracts in the growing sustainable market. Education and Training The future success of the construction industry depends on the availability of skilled professionals. The credit crisis poses a significant threat to the number of students enrolling in graduate construction courses. Students may be apprehensive about pursuing a career in construction in this unstable climate. This would result in a loss of specialist skills, which in turn would hinder the recovery and future development of the industry. Sandwich courses could be at particular risk because of the lack of available placements available. Many companies are reducing the number of placements they have for students or not taking on any at all. This could result in a reduction in the number of places available on the courses because they can not guarantee work experience placements. Apprenticeships in the UK house-building industry have also suffered as a direct result of the credit crunch. However, opportunities still exist in the bigger public sector infrastructure projects such as schools, hospitals, railways and roads. As a result of these risks the Government is working with Construction Skills to try and secure as many positions as possible for students. A new taskforce is being created to ensure that construction training is as effective as possible, and apprenticeship funding will also be increased to over Ã £1 billion to try and prevent skill shortages (Department for innovation, Universities & Skills). For professionals already within the industry, there is research to suggest that individuals with specialist skills or training could potentially gain a competitive advantage in the current economic climate (Chartered Institute of Management). The research predicts that professional qualifications could result in an additional Ã £152,000 in lifetime earnings. It also suggests that a working knowledge of sustainable building and other innovative methods will be a particular advantage, with major projects on the horizon requiring an extensive skilled workforce in these areas. It is important for employers to train and encourage further development if they want to secure the future of the construction industry. This will ensure that their workforce is properly trained in up-to-date techniques and will put them in a stronger and more competitive position to win new contracts when market conditions improve. Although it may be inevitable for some to make financial cuts to survive, it is crucial to maintain a constant number of new innovative minds that will allow the industry to recovery and continue to grow.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In this world we need to know and to make a difference between a good friend and a bad friend. In this world we see the friends are useful, helpful, and happiness. Per person point of view; for example, people are like to make friends, and some their do not like to make a friend who are solitary of the people. First, friends are teaching us in this world, and we need who trusts their in our life. We have to talked to our friends who are we comfortable with and talk a privately that is a wonderful friends, and he keeps everything in his life without talking out. A greet friends are always together whatever times and they are one hand, which is mean lovely, helpful, and greatness to find them. On other hand, we know some people have a bad personally. They we have to keep way from us. They who makes us a bad gay, useless, unhappy, dangerous, and always their have a trouble; whatever times, a bad friends have dangerous idea and they are a big different between a greet friends and a bad friends. We have to call them enemy because they are usually make us in troubles and they do not have anything to trust in this world. Also, if we have to compare between a abusive friends and a good friends, we find a lot of difference and they are dissimilar because the a good friends always honest with themselves and a bad friends take you to dangerous way and they are lying with themselves. To sum up, compare from a good friends are difficult, but it is not difficult between a bad friends and a useful friends. In my opinion, in this world we need to experience with friends until we have to find a greet friends that can makes us happiness, trust, and comfortable with ourselves.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Adolescent Alcohol Abuse Essay Adolescent Alcohol Abuse:What Factors are Present?Over the years, many researchers have dedicated their time and energy to study adolescent alcohol abuse. They have found that there are many factors that contribute to adolescent alcohol abuse. These factors are psychological, environmental, social, and cultural. Not all of these factors play a part in every adolescent who abuses alcohol, but one of these factors is usually present. Psychological disorders have been found in both American, and Taiwan adolescents who abuse alcohol. The health risks of adolescent alcohol abuse are great. Alcohol affects the physiology of a young person. It disrupts the genetics and hormonal balances that are critical in the early development of youngsters.Treatment of alcohol abuse is a great state of change and development. Many therapists, doctors and counselors are trying to incorporate new treatment ideas and methods into the traditional techniques that have been used for years now.It is important t o research the factors that contribute to adolescent alcohol abuse because if these factors are detected early, and an adolescent is put into a prevention program the likelihood that they will abuse alcohol will greatly decrease.Psychological Factors According to the research, there have been many psychological problems found in adolescents who abuse alcohol. The majority of the research has been done in order to solve the question of whether or not these psychological factors are present before an adolescent abuses alcohol, or after the alcohol abuse has occurred. In the research done by Rhode, Lewinsohn, and Seeley (1996), they used a community sample of 1,507 adolescents between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. The adolescents were classified into the categories of abstainers, experimenters, social drinkers, problem drinkers, and abuse and/or dependent groups. In this study, 373 subjects met the criteria for depression, 15 were bipolar, 93 suffered from manic core symptoms, and 124 had an anxiety disorder (Rhode et al., 1996). Furthermore, anxiety disorder and depression were psychological disorders that were more prevalent in female adolescents with alcohol abuse than their male counterparts.Males who abused alcohol tended to suffer from antisocial personality disorder. It is believed that females who suffer from anxiety disorder or depression use alcohol as a self-medication to make them feel better. According to Clark, and Bukstein (1998), one form of antisocial disorder known as conduct disorder lead adolescents to act out and seek out new experiences. This is probably the reason why adolescent males with an antisocial disorder turn to alcohol abuse. According to Rhode (et al., 1996), More than 80% of adolescents with an alcohol use disorder had another psychiatric disorder. (p. 106). In his study, the alcohol abuse tended to follow rather than proceed the psychiatric disorder. From this, it can be concluded that certain psychological disorders such as antisocial disorder, and depression are a factor in adolescent alcohol abuse. Environmental FactorsMany studies have focused on the environmental factors that adolescents are exposed to, and how these factors lead to alcohol abuse. The aim of a study performed by Clark, Lesnick, and Hegedus (1997), Was to examine trauma history and other adverse life events in adolescents with alcohol dependence or abuse and to compare them with a sample of community-dwelling adolescents without alcohol use disorder (p.1746). This study included 256 adolescents between the ages of fourteen and eighteen (Clark et al., 1997). Adolescents who abused, or were dependent on alcohol reported more traumas then those in the control group. The types of abuse experienced by males and females tended to differ. Females experienced more sexual abuse, and males tended to be victims of violent acts. Both sexual abuse victims, and victims of violent acts showed increased amounts of alcohol use than those adolescents who were not abused in any way. If subjects experienced a number of traumas, t hey tended to abuse alcohol more than those that experienced only one trauma or no trauma at all. From this study, it can be concluded that trauma and abuse leads to adolescent alcohol abuse. Social Factors A study done on Hispanic and Black adolescents in the New York inner cities concluded that there were indeed social factors that contributed to adolescent alcohol abuse. The study used a sample of 4,874 Hispanic and African
Friday, September 27, 2019
Element in story - Assignment Example She is able to contain the sense of freedom within herself and disguise her joy with a sense of sorrow that is associated with the loss of her husband. However, she celebrates the onset of her freedom while secluded in her personal space and behind the closed door (Chopin 206). She remains hopeful of a promising future that will involve making her decisions without the influence of his husband or other people. She seems convinced of the end of the period of being undermined by superior authority. Another element, which reflects the onset of freedom, is the description accorded to the sky. Louise notes of the dark clouds piling by the west (Chopin 205). Such an observation may be translated as an indication of the dusk of her oppression. Her freedom was trickling like the blue sky. Arguably, she anticipated brighter days akin to the blue sky. The blue sky may, thus, be described as being symbolic with respect to the life of Louise. The demise of her husband is reflected as the termination of her oppressive submission as a wife. Her sudden death may be suggested to have resulted from the shock of learning the setback that struck the onset of her
Thursday, September 26, 2019
M7a2 - research methods - Essay Example This includes all researchers associated with University Institutional Review Board Handbook in conformity with the set of laws developed by the University Institutional Review Board Handbook. By not getting well-versed consent from the board, Ann will not be following the guidelines developed by the board. Even though she believes she is not interfering with participants, it is important to inform the board so that they conduct their investigations (Institutional Review Board Handbook, 2011). According to the code of federal regulations, participants are humans whom the researcher carrying out research obtains information, through involvement or contact with the person. Therefore, these individuals are known as participants. So, the other main purpose of University Institutional Review Board Handbook is to make sure that the risks to participants are reduced (Institutional Review Board Handbook, 2011). This is illustrates indispensable condition for guarantee. The perseverance of when the study participant is at possibility of being at risk is substance of using an ordinary sense and good professional opinion as it relates to the state of affairs of the research achievement (Corey, Corey & Callanan, 2007). The board will cautiously weigh the comparative risks and remuneration of the investigation measures as they communicate to the study participants. Therefore, researchers are not justified in not obtaining informed consent from the board (Corey, Corey & Callanan, 2007). AnnÃ¢â¬â¢s description described above does not meet the Universitys informed consent criteria. This is because she fails to follow the direct procedure developed by the university board. Ann should inform the board about the participants. She should ensure that the participants in the study are fully aware of the risks and that individuals may withdraw from the study at any time without any form of penalty. Ann should also be
Strategic Management Plan - Essay Example In reference to the reports and records from leading economist, they advocate that, any strategic plan should begin with the initiatives from the stakeholders (Mintzberg, 2007, p.37). In precision, strategic management is an activity under a high level of managerial practices whose basis is goals over tactics. This means that the management team must formulate goals which will out do its competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies. By so doing, the organization will have the capability of maintaining a sustainable share in the competitive business environment. This is an article discussing the strategic management plan of PPQ Parts. It s location is in United States and it is leading in meeting its customers demand. The company has not set strong root in reference to its international business structure. The article analyzes the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic plans for the next 4 years so as to meet the gaps in its structure. Among the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s, four years strategic plans are:- 1. Increasing the number employees by from 5,000 to 10,000 (the 5,000 employees work in the branches within USA). 2. Increasing of equipment for international expansion will rise by 80% 3. Increasing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s world market share from 5% to 9% 4. Increasing the stock price from $10 to $22 5. Increasing annual profit share from 6% to 13% (the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s annually average profits is6%) 6. ... one its corporate value) Other short term goals of the company are reduction in expenditures, high level of security, creativity and innovation, among others. This will act as the subsidiaries of the long term goals (Mintzberg, 2007, p.37). Environmental scanning of current conditions This is an explanation of the ongoing activities in the economy world. It encompasses different items, which in one way or the other may deter the achievement of the goals. These situations may also favor the achievement of the goal. It is the duty of management together with the other stakeholder to ensure that all stabling blocks do not affect the objectives. This will only be met by coordination and communication between different parties in the organization. In reference to the environment, there are many factors affect the process of meeting long term plans. This is because the plans work on the basis assumptions, by putting some of the parameters as constants yet they are not definite. These varia bles include changes in the economy, prevailing competition, and political stability (Chandler, 2010, p. 45). Economy PPQ is a company in the United; the national has a stable economy, thus favoring the stability of the economy. This is as a result of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s measures in protecting the business environment of the country. For the strategic plan to realist, the management of the company should consider the possibilities of changes the value of money. This is because, within the four years, there may be differences like those experienced in the year 2008 (global recessions resulting from changes in the price of oil). The company should be ready to offer terms that increase the rate of stock turnover. Other strategies, which are applicable to these instances, are innovation and
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Surprise Ending - Essay Example to get rid of unwanted children while solving perpetual poverty due to so many pregnancies and births that cannot be supported by a poor economy but he actually wanted reforms to be introduced. He was an Irish nationalist and patriot (Fox, 2003, p. 70) and saw the sorry state of his country. The surprise ending in Swifts proposal is that after talking at length about the benefits and virtues of cannibalism for unwanted kids, he turned around by saying how repugnant such a move would be. Swift effectively contradicted himself at the point where he hinted such a course is improbable because male kids have tough meat as their flesh are lean from continual exercise and would require boiling for a long time while the female kids would likewise be unsuitable as they are intended to be breeders in the future; that such actions would border on cruelty. The author succeeded supremely in convincing any reader with his alternative solutions as anything short of cannibalism is indeed most welcome than engaging in such abhorrent action. He succeeded by shocking his readers and raising their awareness about over-population; by his extreme proposals, he primed the people to accept his more sensible alternatives by forcing the politicians to take cognizance of a festering problem and implement the appropriate remedies. His satire of the Irish political economy was a challenge to its politicians to find new solutions. A key to delivering his political messages was use of various figures of speech such as metaphor, simile, innuendos and euphemisms to avoid trouble with the English authorities, as Shakespeare had done before him but still managed to engage his audience (Ray, 2008, p. 168) with the use of colorful and rich language. Jonathan Swift despaired at the failure of the feudalistic structure of Ireland to ably support its growing population, with its poor tenants but very rich landlords. This was before the advent of capitalism during the Industrial Revolution (1750-1850)
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Discussion about a theme in the book history of love - Essay Example ity of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is defined and experienced through connection and validation and it is the need for these things that drive this novelÃ¢â¬â¢s characters in a story of existence. As the story of Leo Gursky begins we see a man who is ever in search of ways to validate his existence. He plays roles within society that are created to fulfill his need to be seen by others. Sometimes that role is that of a cranky old man who must insinuate his anger thus making himself unforgettable to clerks, waiters, and strangers on the street, and other times he plays the role of a fool, spilling and bumbling in order to achieve a One can define Leo by the concepts examined and created by the Austrian psychiatrist Dr. Sigmund Freud concerning the id, the ego, and the superego. Freud Ã¢â¬Å"portrayed humankind as only incompletely evolved, as torn by a fundamental rift between bestial motives and civilized conduct and demeanor, between an animal nature and cultural aspirations.Ã¢â¬ (Mitchell) Freud divided the self into three aspects, the id, the ego, and the superego. While the id represents the childish, willful wants of the unconscious mind, the ego is the conscious mind that keeps those desires from experiencing greater consequences than the identity would wish. The superego represents the unconscious adult mind that inhibits one from indulging fantasies, desires and impulses that can harm the needs of the ego. Ã¢â¬Å"The ego disguises the appearance of the idÃ¢â¬â¢s impulses, thereby both preventing social censure and keeping the impulses under careful regulation.Ã¢â¬ (Mitchell, p. 25) With his ac tions, however, Gursky seems to be led by the id which is described as Ã¢â¬Å"based on our pleasure principle. In a healthy person, according to Freud, the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the needs of the id, not upset the superego, and still take into consideration the reality of every situation.Ã¢â¬ (Hefner) In Gursky, the superego is diminishing as he is dealing with the
Monday, September 23, 2019
Money Laundering and corruption - Essay Example Another important aspect of Money Laundering is that it is ipso facto illegal i.e. the acts that produce the money are always criminal in one or the other. Now in simple words when some criminal activity generates great and heavy and huge amount of profits then that particular group of people involved must think of a way to take care of the funds without gaining attention. Criminals control their large amount of funds by not telling the correct source, moving the money to a place where they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get any attention and some even change the format. Criminals move their money between various banks, financial instruments and they keep on changing the size and shape of their holdings by using distinct currencies and also by accumulating to and subtracting from their funds so that it becomes more difficult and extremely hard to identify. Money laundering is basically an intimidation to the better functioning of our financial system and at the same time it can also be regarded as the Achilles heel of the criminal activities.(Web: Fatfagi) It is a widely known fact that Money Laundering is prevalent and unavoidable in Europe. The EU (European Union) which is a political and an economic union has 27 countries which are located primarily in Europe. Now corruption and Money Laundering is at the highest level in Europe. To control this, the EU has come up with various policies, law and regulations but to no use.Ã For example there is FATF (The Financial Action Task Force) which is an intergovernmental group. It issued a list of countries recently who fail to keep a track of the financial crime. Then there is MONEYVAL which was previously known as PC-R-EV. This basically was established to perform assessment exercises (both self and mutual) of the money laundering activities in Europe. It also reviews the procedures of The Financial Action Task Force. There is a
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice Essay I did not understand why I had to take a research class when all I wanted to do was be a staff nurse in a critical care unit. Research? Evidence-based practice? Why are these topics in the nursing program? I have enough to do just learning all the content in my clinical courses. What do research and evidence have to do with developing my nursing abilities? I trust the faculty, the textbooks, and clinical experience to prepare me for nursing. IÃ¢â¬â¢m already getting what I need to know. That was my earlier attitude. Now that I am practicing, I have a new appreciation for nursing research and the evidence it provides for application to practice. I have an entirely different way of addressing clinical questions. IÃ¢â¬â¢m starting to ask questions about how I can improve the care I give to patients and how I can be involved in my workplaceÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to improve care for the patients it serves. I have discovered by purposeful reading in my practice area that research reports and research summaries contain many implications that apply to practice in the critical care unit. Ã ¦ QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHILE READING THIS CHAPTER: 1 How can faculty encourage students to read research journals? 2 How does research affect nursing practice? 3 How can nurses motivate colleagues to base their practice on research? KEY TERMS Clinical nurse researcher (CNR) An advanced practice nurse who is doctorally prepared and directs and participates in clinical research. Clinical nurse specialist (CNS) An advanced practice nurse who provides direct care to clients and participates in health education and research. Clinical practice guideline (CPG) an evidence-based guide to clinical practice developed by experts in a particular ? eld for direct application in clinical environments. Control group Subjects in an experiment who do not receive the experimental treatment and whose performance provides a baseline against which the effects of the treatment can be measured. When a true experimental design is not used, this group is usually called a comparison group. Data collection The process of acquiring existing information or developing new information. 104 Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice CHAPTER 6 105 Empirical Having a foundation based on data gathered through the senses (e. g. , observation or experience) rather than purely through theorizing or logic. Ethnography A qualitative research method for the purpose of investigating cultures that involves data collection, description, and analysis of data to develop a theory of cultural behavior. Evidence-based practice The process of systematically ? nding, appraising, and using research ? ndings as the basis for clinical practice. Experimental design A design that includes randomization, a control group, and manipulation between or among variables to examine probability and causality among selected variables for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena. Generalizability The inference that ? ndings can be generalized from the sample to the entire population. Grant Proposal developed to seek research funding from private or public agencies. Grounded theory A qualitative research design used to collect and analyze data with the aim of developing theories grounded in real-world observations. This method is used to study a social process. Meta-analysis Quantitative merging of ? ndings from several studies to determine what is known about a phenomenon. Methodologic design A research design used to develop the validity and reliability of instruments that measure research concepts and variables. Naturalistic paradigm A holistic view of nature and the direction of science that guides qualitative research. Needs assessment A study in which the researcher collects data for estimating the needs of a group, usually for resource allocation. Phenomenology A qualitative research design that uses inductive descriptive methodology to describe the lived experiences of study participants. Pilot study A smaller version of a proposed study conducted to develop or re? ne methodology, such as treatment, instruments, or data collection process to be used in a larger study. Qualitative research A systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning. Quantitative research A formal, objective, systematic process used to describe and test relationships and examine cause-and-effect interactions among variables. Quasi-experimental research A type of quantitative research study design that lacks one of the components (randomization, control group, manipulation of one or more variables) of an experimental design. Randomization The assignment of subjects to treatment conditions in a random manner (determined by chance alone). Secondary analysis A research design in which data previously collected in another study are analyzed. State-of-the-science summary A merging of ? ndings from several studies concerning the same topic. Examples include meta-analysis with a quantitative approach and integrative review with a descriptive approach. Survey A nonexperimental research design that focuses on obtaining information regarding the status quo of a situation, often through direct questioning of participants. Triangulation The use of a variety of methods to collect data on the same concept. LEARNING OUTCOMES After studying this chapter, the reader will be able to: 1 Summarize major points in the evolution of nursing research in relation to contemporary nursing. 2 Evaluate the in? uence of nursing research on current nursing and health care practices. 3 Differentiate among nursing research methods. 4 Evaluate the quality of research studies using established criteria. 5 Participate in the research process. 6 Use research ? ndings to improve nursing practice. 106 UNIT ONE The Development of Nursing CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter provides basic knowledge regarding the research process and the ultimate importance of evidence-based nursing practice. The intent is to inspire an appreciation for nursing research and to show how it can improve nursing practice and how results can be translated into health policy. Nursing research is de? ned as a systematic approach used to examine phenomena important to nursing and nurses. A summary of major points in the evolution of nursing research in relation to contemporary nursing is presented. A description of private and public organizations that fund research is given, and their research priorities are listed. Major research designs are brie? y described, and examples of each are given. Nurses of all educational levels are encouraged to participate in and promote nursing research at varying degrees. The process of locating research and evidence for practice is reviewed. Students are introduced to the research process and guided in the process of critically appraising published research and research syntheses. Ethical issues related to research are examined, and historical examples of unethical research are given. The functions of the institutional review board (IRB) and the use of informed consent in protecting the rights of human subjects are emphasized. DEFINITION OF NURSING RESEARCH Research is a process of systematic inquiry or study to build knowledge in a discipline. The purpose of research is to develop an empirical body of knowledge for a discipline or profession. Speci? cally, research validates and re? nes existing knowledge and develops new knowledge (Burns and Grove, 2007). The results of research process provide a foundation on which practice decisions and behaviors are laid. Research results create a strong scienti? c base for nursing practice, especially when deliberately and carefully evaluated for application to speci? c clinical topics (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2005). In recent decades the nursing discipline has begun to pay much greater attention to the necessity of participating in research. Nursing research is a systematic approach used to examine phenomena important to nursing and nurses. Because nursing is a practice profession, it is important that clinical practice be based on scienti? c knowledge. Evidence generated by nursing research provides support for the quality and cost-effectiveness of nursing interventions. Thus recipients of health careÃ¢â¬âand particularly nursing careÃ¢â¬âreap bene? ts when nurses attend to research evidence and introduce change based on that evidence into nursing practice. The introduction of evidence-based change into the direct provision of nursing care may occur at the individual level of a particular nurse or at varied organizational or social levels. In addition to nursing research aimed at affecting the direct provision of nursing and health care to recipients of nursing care, nursing research also is needed to generate knowledge in areas that affect nursing care processes indirectly. Research within the realms of nursing education, nursing administration, health services, characteristics of nurses, and nursing roles provides evidence for effectively changing these supporting areas of nursing knowledge (Burns and Grove, 2007). Today the importance of nursing research to the discipline is recognized. However, much nursing history underlies the current state of acceptance. EVOLUTION OF NURSING RESEARCH Nursing research began with the work of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War. After Florence NightingaleÃ¢â¬â¢s work, the pattern that nursing research followed was closely related to the problems confronting nurses. For example, nursing education was the focus of most research studies between 1900 and 1940. As more nurses received their education Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice CHAPTER 6 107 in a university setting, studies regarding student characteristics and satisfactions were conducted. As more nurses pursued a college education, staf? ng patterns in hospitals changed because students were not as readily available as when more students were enrolled in hospitalaf? liated diploma programs. During this period, researchers became interested in studying nurses. Questions such as what type of person enters nursing and how are nurses perceived by other groups guided research investigations. Teaching, administration, and curriculum were studies that dominated nursing research until the 1970s. By the 1970s more doctorally prepared nurses were conducting research, and there was a shift to studies that focused on the improvement of patient care. The 1980s brought nursing research to a new stage of development. There were many more quali? ed nurse researchers than ever, widespread availability of computers for collection and analysis of data, and a realization that research is a vital part of professional nursing (Polit and Beck, 2006). Nurse researchers began conducting studies based on the naturalistic paradigm. These studies were qualitative rather than quantitative. In addition, instead of conducting many small, unrelated research studies, teams of researchers, often interdisciplinary, began conducting programs of research to build bodies of knowledge related to speci? c topics, such as urinary incontinence, decubitus ulcers, pain, and quality of life. The 1990s brought increasing concern about health care reform, and now in the twenty-? rst century, research studies focus on important health care delivery issues, such as cost, quality, and access. Research ? ndings are being used increasingly as the basis for clinical decisions. Evidencebased practice (EBP) can be de? ned as the process of systematically ? nding, appraising, and using research ? ndings as a basis for making decisions about patient care. The rise of technology and the worldwide access and ? ow of information have transformed the decision-making processes of practitioners. Helpful informational websites for busy practitioners are listed in Box 6-1. No longer do nurses simply compare outcomes of patient care with other units in the B O X 6Ã¢â¬â1 Helpful Websites l f l b i National Guideline ClearinghouseÃ¢â¬âresource for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines www. guidelines. gov US Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Practice Guidelines www. healthquality. va. gov AHRQ Healthcare Innovations ExchangeÃ¢â¬âinnovations and tools to improve health care www. innovations. ahrq. gov/index. aspx The Evidence-Based Medicine Education Center of ExcellenceÃ¢â¬âextensive list of databases, journals, and textbooks http://library. ncahec. net/ebm/pages/resources. htm U. S. National Institute for Health Consensus statements http://consensus. nih. gov Centre for Evidence-Based Nursing, based at University of YorkÃ¢â¬âUnited Kingdom www. york. ac. uk/healthsciences/centres/evidence/cebn. htm The Joanna Briggs Institute, based at Royal Adelaide Hospital and the University of Adelaide, AustraliaÃ¢â¬âmultiple evidence resources for practice www. joannabriggs. edu. au Cochrane CenterÃ¢â¬âresource for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines www. cochrane. org 108 UNIT ONE The Development of Nursing same hospital. Nurses and other health care professionals are more likely to look for solutions, choices, and outcomes for patients that represent the best available knowledge internationally (Hamer and Collinson, 2005). RESEARCH PRIORITIES Why set priorities for research in the nursing discipline? Can nurses do research in areas that match personal areas of interest? The answer to the second question is, yes, certainly. But nursing exists to provide high-quality nursing care to individuals in need of health-promoting, health-sustaining, and health-restoring strategies. The main outcome of research activity for a nurse is to eventually put the knowledge gained to work in health care delivery. Research priorities, often set by groups that fund research, encourage nurse researchers to invest effort and money into those areas of research likely to generate the most bene? t to recipients of care. Of course the funding opportunities offered by such groups do not hurt the research enterprise either. Research costs money. Thus nurses engaged in research often match personal interests with funding opportunities that are available during the planning phase for a proposed investigation. Two major sources of funding for nursing research are the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research [AHCPR] and reauthorized as AHRQ by Congress in 1999). Both of these organizations are funded by federal congressional appropriations. Private foundations and nursing organizations also provide funding for nursing research. National Institute of Nursing Research As part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the NINR supports research on the biologic and behavioral aspects of critical health problems that confront the nation. The NINRÃ¢â¬â¢s research focus encompasses Ã¢â¬Å"health promotion and disease prevention, quality of life, health disparities, and end-of-lifeÃ¢â¬ (NINR Strategic Plan 2006-2010, 2006). A small sampling of potentially supported research topics includes those aimed at: ? Determining disease risk and treatment through utilizing genetic information ? Determining effective health-promotion strategies for individuals, families, and communities ? Discovering approaches that encourage people to effectively take responsibility for symptom management and health promotion ? Assisting in identi? cation and effective management of symptoms related to acute and chronic disease ? Improving clinical settings in which care is provided ? Improving the quality of care giving in settings such as long-term care facilities, the home, and the community ? Understanding predisposition to disease, socioeconomic factors that in? uence health, and cultural health practices that either protect from or expose to risk for health problems ? Improving symptom management for those at end of life The areas of research emphasis published by the NINR are useful guides for investigators developing proposals but are not considered to be prescriptive in nature. Investigators bring to bear their own unique expertise and creativity when proposing research in harmony with NINR priority research areas. Annually the NINR conducts a roundtable discussion with multiple nursing organizations to obtain the feedback of the disciplines regarding the need for continued or new research Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice CHAPTER 6 109 emphases. Information obtained is used in setting future research agendas and making decisions about funding of proposals submitted by researchers (Of? ce of Science Policy and Public Liaison, NINR, 2009). The NINR website details current announcements regarding research priorities (www. ninr. nih. gov/ResearchAndFunding). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality The AHRQ broadly de? nes its mission as Ã¢â¬Å"improving the quality, safety, ef? ciency, and effectiveness of health care for all AmericansÃ¢â¬ (AHRQ, 2009a). As an agency of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, the AHRQÃ¢â¬â¢s health-related aims are to reduce the risk of harm by promoting delivery of the best possible health care, improve health care outcomes by encouraging the use of evidence to make informed health care decisions, transform research into practice to facilitate wider access to effective health care services, and reduce unnecessary costs (AHRQ, 2009a). Since the inception of the agency in 1989, strategic goals have centered on supporting improvements in health outcomes, strengthening measurement of health care quality indicators, and fostering access to and cost-effectiveness of health care. The 1999 reauthorizing legislation expanded the role of the agency by directing the AHRQ to: ? Improve the quality of health care through scienti? c inquiry, dissemination of ? ndings, and facilitation of public access to information. ? Promote patient safety and reduce medical errors through scienti? c inquiry, building partnerships with health care providers, and establishment of centers for education and research on therapeutics (CERTs). ? Advance the use of information technology for coordinating patient care and conducting quality and outcomes research. ? Establish an of? ce on priority populations to ensure that the needs of low-income groups, minorities, women, children, the elderly, and individuals with special health care needs are addressed by the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s research efforts. The research-related activities of the AHRQ are quite varied, but a recent shift emphasizes a more deliberate translation of research evidence into practice. In a process similar to that used by the NIH, investigators are invited to submit research proposals for possible funding through grant announcements. A listing of current areas of the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s research interests can be found online at www. ahrq. gov/fund/portfolio. htm. The AHRQ actively promotes EBP, partially through the establishment of 14 EBP centers (EPCs) in the United States and Canada. EPCs conduct research on assigned clinical care topics and generate reports on the effectiveness of health care methodologies. Health care providers may then use the evidence in developing site-speci? c guidelines that direct clinical practice. AHRQ also actively maintains the National Guideline Clearinghouse (www. guidelines. gov), an website that makes available to health care professionals a wide array of clinical practice guidelines that may be considered in health care decision making. Another recent addition to AHRQÃ¢â¬â¢s initiatives is the Healthcare Innovations Exchange (2009b), which provides a public source of information about innovations taking place in health care delivery. Submitted innovations are reviewed for the quality of achieved outcomes, providing evidence as a foundation for decision making by others who may be searching for or considering similar innovations. Although most AHRQ activities are intended to support health care professionals and institutions, the agency supports health care recipients by designing some information speci? cally for dissemination to the lay public (AHRQ, 2009a). 110 UNIT ONE The Development of Nursing Private Foundations Federal funding is available through the NIH and the AHRQ. However, because obtaining money for research is becoming increasingly competitive, voluntary foundations and private and community-based organizations should be investigated as possible funding sources. Many foundations and corporate direct-giving programs are interested in funding health care projects and research. Computer databases and guides to funding are available in local libraries. In addition, grant-seeking enterprises often purchase subscriptions that allow computer access to enhanced listings of funding foundations that include information about the types of projects those foundations typically fund. Though subscriptions are expensive, costs are often balanced by the ef? ciency with which suitable funding prospects are identi? ed. An example of such a service is Prospect Research Online (www. iwave. com). Private foundations, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2009a, 2009b) or the W. K. Kellogg Foundation (2009), offer program funding for health-related research. Investigators should be encouraged to pursue funding for small projects through local sources or private foundations until a track record is established in research design and implementation. After several years of experience in the research arena, investigators are more likely to be successful in securing funding through federal sources, such as the NIH. Nursing Organizations Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI), the American Nurses Association (ANA), and the Oncology Nurses Society (ONS), are a few of the nursing organizations that fund research studies. STTI makes research grant awards to increase scienti? c knowledge related to nursing practice. STTI supports creative interdisciplinary research and places importance on identifying Ã¢â¬Å"best practicesÃ¢â¬ and benchmark innovations. Awards are made at the international and local chapter levels. The ANA awards small grants through the American Nurses Foundation. Specialty nursing organizations offer grants to support research related to their specialty. For example, the ONS awards grants that focus on issues related to oncology. To summarize, multiple potential sources of funding are available for research projects. The individual or group wishing to conduct research will need to carefully develop a proposal, search for a possible funding source, and submit the proposal. Libraries and the Internet provide ample information about the many foundations and organizations interested in funding research endeavors. Most research institutions establish of? ces that help in the search and procurement of funding. Thus researchers are supported in their work of knowledge building. COMPONENTS OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS The research process involves conceptualizing a research study, planning and implementing that study, and communicating the ? ndings. The process involves a logical ? ow as each step builds on the previous steps. These steps should be included in published research reports so that the reader has a basis for understanding and critiquing the study (Box 6-2). STUDY DESIGNS Study designs are plans that tell a researcher how data are to be collected, from whom data are to be collected, and how data will be analyzed to answer speci? c research questions. Research studies are classi? ed into two basic methods: quantitative and qualitative, two distinctly different approaches to conducting research. The researcher chooses the method based on the research question and the current level of knowledge about the phenomena and the problem to be studied. Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numeric
Friday, September 20, 2019
Linguistic Features Of Advertising Language English Language Essay In the present world of mass media, people are confronted with advertisements all the time. When we watch TV in the comfort of our living rooms, we are bombarded with ads; when we read a newspaper or magazine, somehow our attention is distracted by one form of an ad or another. On our way to school or office, we come across ads in various shapes or colors. Indeed, advertising, whether print, broadcast, or any other type, is part of our everyday lives. It is inevitable for us to neglect the importance of advertising. Goddard (2002) suggested that Although advertisements are ephemeral in that each one is short-lived, their effects are longstanding and cumulative (p.3). There was a TV commercial in which a young male stripped down to his underwear so as to wash his Levi 501s jeans in a launderette. This commercial has stimulated an eight-time growth of the sales of that brand. It happened in 1985 and advertisements at that time were not as popular as nowadays. From this perspective we can know more the importance of advertisements. They can impose great impact on the behavior of the consumers. This is the reason why many and many scholars are working on advertisements. Simpson (2001) acknowledges that there has been an enormous upsurge of interest in the linguistic and discoursal characteristics of advertising (p. 589), adding that the studies conducted have been anchored on different traditions and perspectives, such as cognitive, cultural and anthropological, genre and register analysis, critical discourse analysis, and linguistic pragmatics (Simpson, 2001, p. 590). In recent years, research has focused on reader effects of poetic and rhetorical elements in ads from a relevance-theoretic perspective. For instance, van Mulken, van Enschot-van Dijk, and Hoeken (2005) aimed to find out whether slogans in ads are appreciated more than slogans without a pun, and whether puns containing two relevant interpretations are appreciated more than puns containing only one relevant interpretation (p. 707). Lagerwerf (2007), on the other hand, examined the effects on audiences of irony in ads and of sarcasm in public information announcements. Working within th e pragmatic construct of metadiscourse, Fuertes-Olivera, et al. (2001) analyzed the metadiscourse devices typically used by ad copywriters to construct their slogans and/or headlines. The researchers analysis proceeded from the assumption that advertising English should be represented as a continuum of text functions fluctuating between informing and manipulating in accordance with the idea that advertising is an example of covert communication. By studying advertisements and its language, we can acquire more information of this special form of language and also of register. Sometimes, the language use in advertisements can even reflect the different values in a society. In this study, the main focus is on the linguistic perspectives of advertising language. A lot of studies have been done to find out the common and distinctive features of advertising language in Western society. The English advertisements in Asian society have rarely been studied. In this research, some advertiseme nts in a magazine published in Hong Kong will be studied. The research questions are as followed: What are the general lexical grammatical features of advertising languages? And what are the general lexical grammatical features of advertising language in Hong Kong Magazine? Do the general features found in the advertisements in HK Magazine match with the findings of general features shown in literature review? If so, what are the reasons for the seller to use a similar approach? If not, why do they use different approach? The answer of the first part of the research will be answered in Literature Review. While for the others, they will be answered through a textual analysis on the advertisements of Hong Kong Magazine. Literature Review 1. Advertising 1.1 Definition and Development The word advertise originated from Latin advertere, which means to attract peoples attention. The basic characteristic of advertising is to arouse consumers attention and interest towards a product so that consumers would take action to buy the product (Cao, 2008). The American Marketing Association provided a more detailed definition of advertising, namely, a paid, non personal communication laying emphasis on promotion and visual as well as oral presentation of the sales message (Tyagi Kumar 2004:3). Aside from considering advertising as a paid communication and a marketing tool, Ulanoff(1977) further stated that advertising openly identifies the advertiser and his relationship to the sale effort. The patterns or styles of advertising change. There are different manners to advertise in different times. Three different periods in advertising were elaborated as follows (Myers, 1994:19-28): The 1890s: making brands and getting attention. Ads were created using rhymes, repetition, parallelism, and scientific and literary language. The advertisers were just getting a major foothold in newspapers and magazines. The 1920s: creating an image for consumption. Ads often contained embedded narratives and mock conversations, associative language, and metaphorical substitutions of one thing for another. Ads used the new media, such as radio and comics. The 1960s to the present: addressing the jaded consumer. Ads are made using ironies, parodies, puns, ads on ads, and juxtaposition of competing discourse in the text and the images. There is an extension to new media- not only television, but sponsorship of sports and the arts. 1.2 Categorization Cook (1992:9) proposed four ways of categorizing ads, namely, by medium, product, technique, and consumership. First, in terms if medium, Fuertes-Olivera, et al. (2001) mentioned that the text type of advertisements can be further subdivided into digital advertisement, broadcast advertisement, print advertisement and outdoor advertisements. As for this study, the data of analysis are print advertisements. Second, based on products, luxury item ads require distinct techniques from ads on household necessities (Cook, 1992:9). Mueller (1992) brought forward two terms: high consumer involvement and low consumer involvement. The former refers to the goods which generally tend to be higher in price and are purchased relatively scarcely; the latter refers to the goods which tend to be lower in price and are brought very often. Ebert Griffin (2005:305) provided a more detailed categorization, namely, convenience goods, shopping goods, and specialty goods. The first one is similar to low con sumer involvement while high consumer involvement products are subdivided into shopping goods and specialty goods. Specialty goods are extremely important and more expensive than shopping goods, such as wedding gowns. The data analysis in this study comprise of all three kinds of goods. Third, concerning techniques, there is a distinction between reason advertising and tickle advertising. Reason advertising is direct and simple while tickle advertising in indirect and required an audience to exert more efforts to comprehend them (Bernstein, 1974). Fourth, with respect to consumership, advertisements can be categorized by consumers lifestyle, socio-economic class, gender, age, and so on (Cook, 1992:11). Moreover, advertisements can be classified based on their location in the magazines or newspapers. First, display ads, like those investigated in this study, are placed in conspicuous places amongst the editorial material so as to draw the attention of readers whose main purpose of reading the publication is not to read a particular advertisement. Second, classified ads are placed in special sections and ordered in accordance with the subject as their target reader belongs to a particular group (Vestergaard Schroder, 1985:3). Advertising language The relationship between text and image There is general disagreement on the relationship between text and image. Barthes (1984) claimed that all images are polysemous with a floating chain of signifier. Language can be used to fix this floating chain and to anchor the image (1984:39). However, Kress and van Leeuwen (1996:17) argued that text and image are not mutually dependent and that the visual component of a text is an independently organized and structured message- I. Lexical features of advertisements in English newspapers and magazines 1. Coinage Coinage, according to Longman Dictionary, means a word or a phrase that has been recently invented. Advertisements are full of coined words to be lively and eye-catching. For example: Give a Timex to all, to all a good time. (Timex, a brand name of watch) Timex, being a coined noun, is formed originally from the two words time and excellent. The new word is short and easy to remember. (2) TWOGETHER The Ultimate All Inclusive One Price Sunkissed Holiday (a seashore holiday hotel advertisement) Twogether is obviously derived from the word together, which will create the fresh effect and leave a strong memory in the readers mind. Beside, the particular image of two persons being together is formed without great effort, which make us feel warm and longing for that holiday hotel. 2. Comparative and Superlative adjectives In order to convince the readers that the product advertised is second to none, comparative and superlative adjectives are frequently and commonly used in the advertisements. (3) More connections to Europe. DHL has the worlds biggest logistics network. In this example, DHL, the logistics company, highlight its advantage of being more accessible and more easily to reach with the word more and biggest. Those who read this advertisement will have the impression that DHL is right choice for them because it has more locations to reach than other companies. 3. Compound word Compound words are colloquial in form, which will gives the readers a sense of closeness. Compound words also allow more possibilities to create humorous effect. (4) better-than-leather-miracle-covering look at the oh-so-comfortable size give that oh-so-good-to-be alive feeling This advertisement is quite interesting by combining many words together, which sounds like someone who is exclaiming his extol. Without doubt, it is impressive because of its creativity of compound word and humorous effect. III. Syntactic features of advertisements in English newspapers and magazines 1. Simple sentence Generally speaking, simple sentences are quick and direct in conveying information, while complex sentences will create some suspense dragging the readers understanding behind. Please compare: (5) Buy one and get one free. (5`) If you buy one, you will get one free. (6) Time to listen. Capacity to act (Mess Pierson, Consulting Company) (6`) Its time to listen and our capacity to act. Obviously, sentence (4) and (5) are both vivid in rhythm and easy for the readers to get the information. Sentence (4`) and (5`) however, are comparatively redundant in conveying the meaning, though they are grammatically correct. Readers tend to remember to (4) and (5) structure, because of their simplicities. One everlasting example is Nike shoes slogan: Just Do It! rather than Lets just do it now! 2. Imperative sentence Imperative sentences are often persuasive in that it arises the reads impulse to buy the product. Imperative sentences, beginning with the verbs, are forceful and tempting, which coincide with the purpose of the advertisements. (7) Get fast downloads with no wires attached. (SmarTone, Hong Kong Telecom Company) (8) Stop in at any Ford or Lincoln-Mercury dealer. (Ford, Car Company) Readers are advocated and persuaded to do the action, waiting no time. By telling or requesting readers to perform in a certain way, imperative sentences are effective in exerting a subtle impression to do as they are told. 3. Disjunctive Clause Disjunctive Clause is the exclusive syntactic features of advertisements in English newspaper and magazines. Disjunctive Clause usually chops the sentences into several parts with the cohesive device of full stop, dash, hyphen, semi-colon etc. By doing so, the advertisement is more condensed, which will save the money for taking up too much space of the newspapers or magazines. (9) We strive to send you a vacation faster. Caring more about you. (SkyTeam, Flight Company) In this advertisement, we can see that Caring more about you is split from the former. Normally, we would say: We strive to send you a vacation faster and care more about you. The effect here is to highlight the part Caring more about you to leave a strong impression on the readers. So, when the ads want to emphasis something, they will tend to put them in a Disjunctive Clause to catch the readers attention. Cook (1992) stated that Advertising is a prominent discourse type in virtually all contemporary societies (p.5). The term discourse means text and context together and they interact in a way which participants perceived as unified and meaningful. Text means linguistic forms, which is artificially and temporarily detached from context so as to carry out analysis. Context includes substance, music and pictures, paralanguage, situation, co-text, intertext, participants and function. Four categories of advertisement are found. They are medium, product, technique and consumer (Cook, 1992, p.9). Another scholar Goddard (2002) suggested that attention-seeking devices are presented in the language of advertising, along with the category of writer, readers and texts. Moreover, cultural variations, user friendliness, stereotyping and presupposition are also features of the advertising language. Research Questions Methodology A qualitative approach will be adopted in this research. A total of twenty advertisements will be collected randomly from the magazine Times. The volume in 2012 will be used. Times magazine has 54 issues a year. The issues on January, April, July and October will be used. From each issue, one piece of advertisement will be analyzed. There should be a total of 20 issues and thus 20 pieces of advertisement. Times magazine is chosen because of its popularity and the readiness to find in the market. The types of products must not re-occur in the 20 pieces being analyzed. It means that every piece of advertisement should be promoting different products. From the 20 pieces of advertisements, they will be analyzed accordingly in several directions. The first direction is the theory they has used in advertising. The second direction is identifying the features of advertising language. The results will be presented in tables and summary will be drawn according to the findings.
Movie Analysis of Grease In this paper I am going to write about the movie Ã¢â¬Å"Grease.Ã¢â¬ Specifically, on the two main characters Sandy and Danny. I will be describing and analyzing their interpersonal communication, but mainly on the conflict of their communication. At the beginning they Sandy & Danny start off with a great relationship. They meet at the beach during summer break. Thinking they would never see each other again they went their separate ways. But Sandy ends up moving and goes to the same high school as Danny. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that the other is at the same school until Rizzo, one of the Ã¢â¬Å"pink ladiesÃ¢â¬ introduces them to on another at the football pep rally. This is when all the conflict starts. Danny and Sandy are so excited to see each other, but all of sudden Danny changes his tone of voice, as well as attitude toward Sandy. Sandy is taken back by the way Danny is acting. She asks him, Ã¢â¬Å"What is wrong with you?Ã¢â¬ Then he replies Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the matter with me, WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the matter with you?Ã¢â¬ Going on she calls him a fake and a phony and says she wishes she never laid eyes on him. The T-Birds, DannyÃ¢â¬â¢s friends start giving Danny a hard time about Sandy. So in a nutshe ll he treats her like she is just an ordinary person and not a girl that he cares for. On one day Sandy is at the local restaurant with a guy that happens to run track and Danny keeps watching her. When Sandy goes to the juke box she walks by Danny and does not acknowledge his existence. Danny then approaches Sandy and begins to give her a hard time about the guy that she is with. Sandy is very short with Danny and does not let on that she is upset. Danny then decides for Sandy to notice him that he needs to become athletic, so he starts try... ...e a lot, showing that she was committed to their relationship and tolerated their differences. Once or twice she used the voice response. When she was trying to find out about the girl he says he never dated, she continually brought it up for they could talk about it. I feel that this conflict was good, due to it helped them both grow and strengthen their relationship. It helped them both realize that they can change how they act towards one another and well as say what they really mean and to be open about how they feel for one another. I think that it was great how the two of them went for the Win-Win strategy to accommodate for the other. In all I feel that Danny and Sandy noticed not only by communicating but also by facial gestures as to what the other was thinking and how each of them could change to get to a compromise and go on with their relationship.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Yesterday, December 7th, 1941- a date which will live in infamy- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of JapanÃ¢â¬ (1). These are the words Franklin Delano Roosevelt chose to begin his Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation the day after Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan. FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s speech was a call to arms, and in his speech he expressed outrage towards Japan and confidence in inevitable triumph. The speech was a request to declare war against Japan and to bring the United States into World War II. FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s speech was successful in bringing the United States into World War II because FDR presented facts explaining why war needed to be declared and used righteous indignation to give the nation a sense of pride and hope by letting them know everything would be done to ensure the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s safety. On December 7, 1941 the U.S. naval base was subject to an attack that was one of the greatest military surprises in the history of warfare. On December 8, 1941, the day after the attack was made on Pearl Harbor by Japan, FDR delivered his speech to the Congress of the United States. He explained how the United States was suddenly attacked by the Empire of Japan. He explained how the attacks had to have been planned weeks in advance, but during that time Japan acted as if they were making peace with the United States. Roosevelt reported the damages and losses that the nation suffered due to the attacks. He explained what actions would be taken to defend the country, and what they would do to ensure this would never happen again. The purpose of his speech was to request Congress to declare war against Japan while displaying the confidence to assure the nation that event... ...made the country want to fight back, but he also used the right words to give America hope. Franklin Delano RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation was successful because he declared war on Japan without instilling too much fear on the nation. Entering a war can put thoughts of panic or fear into peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds, but the President wanted the nation to know that measures needed to be taken to ensure safety. He let the nation know that a war would be declared because the attack on Pearl Harbor was deliberate, it caused severe damage, and it put our nation in grave danger. The President made his speech successful by using a combination of logic and emotions to persuade his audience. Through FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s speech he wanted to make it clear on why we were entering the war, and he wanted to give our nation a feeling of hope in a time when the country was in jeopardy.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Harriet Beecher Stowe promotes two related but distinct moral codes in Uncle Tom's Cabin: One that is based on Christian values, the other on maternal values. Consider how, at the beginning of the novel, both Uncle Tom and Eliza decide to act when told they are to be sold. Uncle Tom puts his faith in God and lets whatever will happen, happen. Eliza, who as well faces being separated from her child, decides to escape. Both decisions, though opposing, are sympathetically portrayed and seem appropriate to each character. The Christian model of behavior Stowe endorses is made clear by Uncle Tom's martyrdom and simple faith in the literal word of the bible. However the maternal model is less clear, since at times it seems to parallel the Christian model, and at other times , as in this case, it differs radically. Eliza runs away to protect her child's safety. Although Eliza's behavior, and the actions of the other strong female characters of the novel, could easily be understood by saying , "a mother of course would do anything for her child", this statement immediately puts the female characters' actions on a physical, real-life level, opposing them to the higher, spiritual choices of their male counter-parts. Are not universal ethics, ones that are held despite the situation, commonly seen as superior to situational ethics? However this hierarchy of choice misses the quality of strength and dynamism that Stowe attributes to her female characters' actions. Such a hierarchy also ignores that Stowe is calling the reader to action against slavery, and by promoting physically-based action over well-intentioned but inactive abstract ideals, Stowe perhaps is giving credence to situationally-based ethics. More than just an ethical code, Stowe... ... would be interesting to write further on the ways Stowe colludes with sexist thinking or how Uncle Tom himself embodies some of these maternal skills I speak of. Although I recognize these limitations of the paper might alienate my audience to some extent, I hope that my reader will be challenged to form an opinion that accepts the validity of the strong mother figure. Also I hope that the web-page will interest my reader in other theoretical resources. Because I saw the book as a resource and a starting-point for feminist thinking, my web page is also organized in this way. I would like browsers to find my links informative and useful in their own study of feminism and the classics of American Literature. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ruddick, Sara. "Maternal Thinking." M Studies 6 1980: 342-63 Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom's Cabin. New York: Macmillan Co., 1926.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The influence of the video game in children A. Violence. 1. Criminal behavior. 2. Disrespect for the authority and law. 3. Use and abuse of drugs and alcohol. B. Sex. Content 1. Abuse of toward women 2. Use of foul language and obscene behavior. 3. Category of the Video game C. Murders. 1. Killing people. 2. Killing animals. 3. Emotional effects. Conclusion. ?Did you know that in 1980 the video games transformed in a phenomenon that revolutionized around the world?Not mention has become a popular activity for people of all ages. As a result the video game is a multibillion dollar company and many children spend large amounts of time playing them and these create bad behavior and studies demonstrate that the children imitate the violence that they see. In the last years if has been shown an increase of rebel children due to the content in the video game they play such as violence, sex content and murders.The influence of the video games in the children has effects with the time. The c hildren who are exposed to violent spectacles can manage to be more aggressive and acquire a criminal behavior where they interact and answer with violence in his social environment. Also the video games transmit values that impact and impress the children and this creates rebellious behaviors and they do not respect the authorities and the laws.For this reason, they create bad vices as the abuse of the drugs and the alcohol to an early age. Another important point is the sexual content that these video games have. Many video games are related to sexual activities since they have not been designed for minors of 18-year-old. Often we see that these games insult and abuse to the woman and induce to the mistreatment and to the use of bad words and obscenities and as consequence is altered the normal and emotional ripeness of the children.Without mentioning that each video game in the part of behind of the box describes that we will find in the game and type of content already be of sex ual character. As an example of video game with sexual content are God of War and Assassin Creed. The murder to persons or animals is common in the video games. The only aim is to struggle and to obtain the major punctuation; nevertheless, this affects negatively the physical, mental, emotional development, and the social environment of the children.As result, it borders the time in order that the children and teenagers make other healthy and productive activities. Considering all these things is the responsibility of the parents to form his children in order that they are good persons for the society. Some children can involve so much in the video game and this creates an addiction and brings big consequences as lower qualifications, overweight, they happen less time with his families and finally they create aggressive behaviors.Also it is a duty of the parents in supervise his children and to know the content of the video games and of being informed what this being bought for his children since a market exists with thousands of video games and many of these have a bad content for his age. The most advisable thing is that the parents feel to playing with his children who interact with them, the parents need motivate his children in participate of other activities and the parents will have achieving a better communication and the safety of which his young minds are not corrupt with video games.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Love is unknow. Eros; an attraction based on a sexual desire, Philos; friendship love, or common interest, Storge; the natural love of a parent for their child or family love, and Agape; the unselfish love for the good of another. These are all Greek words and there definition of love. There are many different kinds of love; from the love of a mother to the love for car, love has no boundaries, but true love between a man and a woman can last a life time. Some may say the feeling of love is the most wonderful thing about life.Love also comes in different cases and scenarios such as the inseparable love, the violent love and the love that never dies. Raymond Carvers Ã¢â¬Å"what we talk about when we talk about loveÃ¢â¬ tells us why love can be so beautiful but yet risky at the same time, Mel and Terri are a couple in love with each other and they are married, but they both had broken relationships with their previous love partners. Nick and Laura are also married and are in love wi th each other, they also had previous love experiences.But do these characters experienced true love or even know what true love is or is it just lust and mostly physical attraction. From the physical to the sentimental or even the violent type of love, true love has no limits; neither Mel and Terri nor Nick and Laura ever experienced true love because they both had broken relationships or had been divorced with their previous love partners. The two couples are engaged in a conversation about love and are caught up in trying to figure out what love is.Mel McGinnis is a cardiologist in his mid-forties, he was married and has kids in his previous life, and he was very much in love with his ex-wife, but that all ended after his divorce. Mel who spent five years in a seminary thought real love was more spiritual than anything else. Mel says he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care for his ex-wife anymore, Ã¢â¬Å"there was a time when I thought I loved my first wife more than life itself. But now I hate h er gutsÃ¢â¬ (352, McMahan). He does not know why he feels this way and wants to know what went wrong, what happened to the fire that once burn so brightly.When a marriage union just suddenly ends we tend to ask questions like whose fault is it, were the couples truly in love each other? But in this day and age a man and a woman can be in marriage but not necessarily in love with each other. This shows that love is much deeper than two people coming together to spend their entire lives with each other. Mel may have moved on from his ex-wife Marjorie but he is certainly not madly in love with Terri whom heÃ¢â¬â¢s been with for five years but only married for four.Mel controls most of the discussion as the evening progressed, Ã¢â¬Å"an indication that he is obsessed with the topic. Mel insists that the conversation be directed at one point; the definition and nature of loveÃ¢â¬ (Bruccoli). Mel defines love as two main different types, the Ã¢â¬Å"physical love, that impulse that drives you to someone special, as well as love of the other persons beingÃ¢â¬ (McMahan, 352), this type of love is among most couples as true love starts with a physical attraction because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all the soon to be lovers know about each other.The other kind of love that Mel described is the Ã¢â¬Å"sentimental love, the day to day caring about the other personÃ¢â¬ (McMahan, 352). When a couple is in love, they may say the words Ã¢â¬Å"I love youÃ¢â¬ on a daily bases but they spend more time showing each other how strong their love is and expressing their feelings sexually and emotionally. MelÃ¢â¬â¢s current wife Terri also had a previous love encounter, her lover Ed, was more of the violent type of lover, he would beat her and drag her across the living room while screaming about how much he loved her.Terri believed that that was true love and she strongly defends it against Mel, who thought that love was not supposed to be violent, Ã¢â¬Å"Mel cannot understand hi s action as an act of love. Love cannot coexist with hatred in his dogmatic mindÃ¢â¬ (Bruccoli). EdÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Terri was so strong that he was stalking her after Mel and Terri started dating, Ed even threaten MelÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Ed was obsessed and more so infatuated with Terri, but Terri did not feel exactly the same way for Ed. Love is something that has to go both ways, couples usually have the same strong feeling for each other because when one partner loves and care
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Aside from the identified purpose of the Uniform Crime Report (UCR), it is formulated in such a way that it classifies the types of crimes under two categories: Part I and Part II. The facts and data of the UCR under Part I is more extensive in terms of the scope of the information in the report when compared to Part II. The facts and data in Part I include other necessary information such as profile of the criminal. In Part II, the rate of arrests for specific crimes are only present in the UCR. Part I crimes are closely monitored by law enforcement because crimes categorized under Part I are violent crimes and crimes against property. Categorizing crimes under two parts, I and II, determines the gravity or the impact of crimes to the public. Part I crimes are more grave, considering that crimes under Part I include rape, robbery, burglary, larceny, arson, etc. These are potentially serious crimes that law enforcement should prioritize in order to uphold peace and order to society. Part II offenses are less serious including crimes such as vandalism, fraud, drug abuse violations, etc. In some instances, law enforcement implements measures that seem to increase the statistics of crime occurrences. However, when we look deeper into the matter, we realize that the increase in crime statistics contribute to the improvement of society. In such instances, positive results from increased crime statistics are observable in Part II crimes. Increasing crime statistics catch the attention of the public, alarming them to be vigilant about their surroundings in order to prevent criminal offenses from taking place. For instance, reports reveal to the public that there is an increase in the number of reported stolen property crimes in the community. This raises the awareness of the people, and since it is a non-violent crime, they are willing to get involved with crime prevention. People decide to engage in neighborhood watch, community policing, and other law enforcement activities that will assist official law enforcement agencies in preventing crime, affording them enough time and manpower to focus on grave crimes categorized under Part I. Offenses such as prostitution and drug abuse violations motivate people in the community to get involved with discovering or reporting violators to law enforcement agencies. Another advantage of reporting increase in crime rates is to empower people to get involved with crime prevention. Offenses against family and children, for instance, have increased. Law enforcement will interpret the statistic in such a way that it expresses the increase in the number of people who reported criminal offenses, and further continue that the increase in the number of people who report criminal violations to the police helps law enforcement in crime prevention. The police might convince the people to report criminal violations because it is one way for law enforcement agencies to know criminal trends and analyze these trends to come up with plans and resolutions to prevent crime.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Star WarsÃ¢â¬ was arguably the first in a new breed of high concept, high budget sci-fi action films. It was directed by George Lucas and originally released in only a few cinemas in 1977. However, the buzz around the film grew, and it is now one of the highest grossing films of all time, and along with its sequels, prequels and re-mastered re-releases, has a large cult following. I feel this is because of Lucas` ability to engage the audience through careful use of sound and camera technique; The use of the scrolling story in space sets up many audience expectations, that the action will be set in space, and that it will base around a struggle between the rebels and the Empire. Narration is a fairly formal method of exposition, linked to the old style fairytale format, preparing the audience for a classic narrative and easily recognizable characters, and expectation that is fulfilled throughout the film (Leia is the princess needing rescue, Vader the Ã¢â¬Å"baddieÃ¢â¬ and Han Solo is the knight and shining armour for example). However, the traditional fairytale narrative also dictates that there should be a happy ending with all the loose ends tied up. This is not the case, for whilst the film ends on an up beat note, the ultimate threat of the Empire has not been neutralized, and has to be dealt with in a separate film. The opening section begins with what appears to us to be a large space ship, flying in from the bottom of the screen at great speed, instantly creating the enigma of who it is moving away from and why they are being fired upon. The next thing we experience is a truly huge battle cruiser gently fly in from the same direction, dwarfing the one seen before. This sets the audience up to expect grand scale- big ships and big battles. The ship rebel ship is relatively battered and older looking. This shows the rebels as the underdog, endearing them to the audience, and insinuates that this has been a long drawn out battle, preparing the audience for the fatigued chaos we see inside the ship. This contrasts sharply with the slick, cold battle cruiser, with a blue tint used to show the coldness of the empire. Because of the obvious superiority of the empires ship, we feel that it is a mismatch of power and begin to resent the empire forÃ persecuting the rebels. The non-diagetic sound of firing used throughout is cold and artificial, making it sound like they are using some unknown technology. This sound is heard almost constantly though the section and so only becomes conspicuous through its absence, and reinforces the relentlessness of the battle. The parallel editing from a shot of the ship sustaining damage to the people inside reacting to it help to link the outside battle with the following scenes in the rebel ship. Throughout this section, almost all shots of the rebels involve movement, conveying panic and inciting it in the audience as we realize that this is building up to something big. The walls of the rebel ship are bright white, and are fairly spacious. This contrast with the dark black interior of the empire ship we see later as the droids try to escape. The whiteness has almost heavenly connotations, making the audience feel like they are in a Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ place, and relatively secure. The black walls of the empire ship give a claustrophobic feel, and make the audience uncomfortable and want to escape. The constant non-diagetic background music is a march, based around horns, a traditionally powerful instrument, typically used to provide music for war films. It also mimics the raised, panicked heartbeat of the rebels. It subconsciously raises our own heartbeat, making the audience feel like they are part of the rebel Ã¢â¬Å"teamÃ¢â¬ The CUÃ¢â¬â¢s on the rebelÃ¢â¬â¢s faces allow the audience to recognize the rebelÃ¢â¬â¢s terror, increasing their own anticipation. By seeing their faces, it humanizes the rebels and prepares the audience to be on their side, instead of the cold, expressionless masks of the empire. During these rebel shots, there are MCUÃ¢â¬â¢s on the two robots, a technique used throughout the sequence and indeed the film to distinguish the central characters. We also realize they are important because their bright metallic colouring makes them stand out from the background of uniformed rebels. Their voices are quite comical; C3P0Ã¢â¬â¢s English accent is so camp and inappropriate to the action packed setting that the audience find themselves laughing. R2D2Ã¢â¬â¢s language is not easily decipherable, and so many laughs are gained by inferring what he has said by C3P0Ã¢â¬â¢s response. This section introduces the audience to the idea that these characters will provide the comic relief for the film, and indeed, their presence in this section allows the audience to relieve a little of their tension by laughing, this is important because of the family based nature of the film, parents do not want their young children to be too scared. The camera moves to a tight shot of the door, framing it within the screen, showing that all attention is now diverted to it. The sparks from the cutters are exaggerated , to emphasise their importance, and run around the screen, creating the impression that the intruders are breaking into the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s real world, further allying them with the rebels. The Storm troopers break through, and an eye line shot from their perspective is used to show the rebels firing back; connoting a Ã¢â¬Å"new perspectiveÃ¢â¬ has arrived. The cutters continue, and when the camera cuts back, they have created a smoke screen , and enigma is created as to what will appear next. At this point, all sound cuts to silence, leaving the audience with the sound of their own raised heartbeat and breathing and intensifying the anticipation. When Vader steps through, only his exaggerated breathing is heard, focusing all our attention on him, making the audience question why he needs a respirator. Vader is instantly identifiable as Ã¢â¬Å"evilÃ¢â¬ , the shot place him at the center of the screen, and he is dressed head to toe in black, as opposed to rebel white ship, a symbol of the goodness of their principles and their Ã¢â¬Å"purityÃ¢â¬ , they have no need for masks or machines. The non-diagetic music then begins its Ã¢â¬Å"EmpireÃ¢â¬ motif, an easily recognizable section used whenever Vader is around or to imply his involvement. This contrasts with the rebel motif that was heard at the very beginning of the section, and is one of the most easily identifiable pieces of film music in history. The use of these motifs enhances the binary opposition of good and evil by giving them completely different music. It also helps build an international cult following, because the iconic music is assessable to all. This makes the audience feel smug at being part of a community that recognizes these motifs. Cut to POV shot, C3PO watching R2D2 receive the message from Leia. Leia is instantly recognizable as a princess- she is shot in soft focus and gentle non-diagetic music plays, to mirror the implied gentleness of her personality. The long shot used means we cannot see her face, so it establishes an enigma as to who she is, whom she is sending the message to and what the message is. During this sequence, the gentle non-diagetic music and the lack of firing sounds allow the audience to feel relaxed for a short moment. This is a classic act of retardation as they are immediately confronted with Vader, in a MCU two shot with his commander. The way that Vader dominates the frame shows his superiority over the commander. VaderÃ¢â¬â¢s voice is very deep and rasping, and sounds processed. This makes him appear Ã¢â¬Å"other worldlyÃ¢â¬ , and the deepness of his voice is traditionally linked to big characters, such as monsters or giants. This makes the audience feel very small and insignificant The CU of the soldiers legs is shot from a low angle, further emphasizing VaderÃ¢â¬â¢s stature and Making the audience aware of his dangerous strength and his Jedi powers, which sets up an audience expectation about use of Ã¢â¬Å"the forceÃ¢â¬ The CU on LeiaÃ¢â¬â¢s face is a contrast to the strength and brutality of the last, as it is once again in soft focus. The conversation between her and Vader is a montage of eye line shots and FSÃ¢â¬â¢s, with them at either side of the screen. The eye line shots are very confrontational, designed to make the audience feel as if they are right in the middle of their argument. The full shot conveys to the audience that their views oppose each other, andÃ reinforces the binary opposites- black vs. white, empire vs. rebels, young vs. old ect. By showing us the droids entering the escape pod, it creates an unrestricted narrative; the audience knows what is inside. Because of this knowledge, we feel superior to the empire troops, who let it pass, further reinforcing our allegiance to the rebels.
Friday, September 13, 2019
INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT - Essay Example Total quality management is an approach to manufacturing in which organizations strive to try and continuously improve the quality of products and services that are offered to their customers. TQM was developed in response to the continuous production of high quality goods at cheap rates. The concept of TQM became popular in early 1980s. The proper implementation of TQM within an organization ensured that process and waste from the processes used by an organization were completely removed (Ross & Perry, 1999). The problem associated with implementing TQM at a university is recognizing the main customers. Unlike most large organizations a university does not produce any product or does not provide regular service. Experts however believe that for a university its customers would be students towards whom the staff focuses on adding value. Needs of the customer TQM is a customer based approach where the organization completely focuses its efforts resources on trying to fulfill the needs of the customer and ensure that the customer remains satisfied. Value is continuously added towards the customer and it is ensured that the basic aim of the organization is the fulfillment of their expectations from the organization (Padhi, 2010). At Cardiff Metropolitan University the teaching and the support staff place a great deal of effort in ensuring that students of the university are provided with the best education and additional services. In addition the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation of the university preparing them for the real world is also worked on and students are ensured that their hard works is paid off when their career flourishes after they graduate. Investigating cost related to quality As mentioned above the concept of TQM greatly revolves around providing value to the customer. It is important that the quality provided to the customer is of top notch and therefore continuous improvements within quality is necessary. To do so organizations have to analyze the co st of improving the quality and reduce it as much as possible (Shim & Siegel, 1999). At Cardiff Metropolitan University quality cannot be compromised on. The management of the university has to ensure that the quality of education and support is such that students can easily grasp the concepts taught to them and are able to implement these concepts to enhance their careers. Furthermore the university also focuses on improving the environment that they get at the campus and ensure that it is comfortable enough for them to adjust. Developing systems that support quality improvements Systems that are developed within an organization must have their focus towards quality and must be flexible enough to include any improvements that are made to the process. Such procedures are vital with respect to TQM (Shim & Siegel, 1999). Designing processes whose main focus is quality at a university would significantly improve not only the graduation rate but would also help students with securing a bright future for themselves. Covering all parts of the organization To increase productivity within the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees it is necessary that they are provided with the proper training and ensuring all the basic parts are covered. Employees must be fully aware of their role within the organization and their role in helping establish an ideal TQM environment (Snell & Bohlander, 2011). Staff at the university must be aware of how they are to approach a student. Each student has a different nature and may react differently in different situations. Proper