"Although petroleum is almost entirely biodegradable, it takes the microbes that break it down a long time to accomplish the task . . . in the meantime, an oil spill's effects atomic number 18 lethal for a variety of plankton, fish larvae and shellfish, as well as for such large animals as birds and marine mammals."
Stein says that a 1990 report by the crowd of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution concluded that "although the open ocean is still fairly healthy, many coastal aras are severely polluted."
As proven world petroleum reserves have increased, the industrialized world came to depend much and more on petroleum as a source of energy. The economist reported in 1993 that since 1985 "the value of oil shipped has almost duple to 1.5 billion tonnes a year."
The potential for precise large oil spills is directly re noveld to the tremendous expansion in the use of "supertankers" to transport crude o
From the late 1960s onwards, the world has experienced a number of very large oil spills. The largest spills include the six one million million barrel spilled into the Persian gulf as a result of the 1991 war and a 1994 spill of a reported two million barrels from a Russian pipeline in the Komi res publica Arctic area.
Others have included the spills from the 1979 Ixtoc blowout in Mexico (400,000 metric function tons), the 1967 tanker Torrey Canyon spill of 118,000 tons gain the Cornwall coast, the 1989 Kharg Island spill of about that size, the 1978 spill of 228,000 tons by the tanker Amoco Cadiz glum the Brittany coast, the 1989 spill of 38 million tons by the tanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound in Alaska, the 1969 spill from oil rigs off Santa Barbara and recent spills by the tanker Braer near the Shetland Islands in 1993 (85,000 tons) and by the tanker Sea Empress off the coast of Wales (65,000 tons) in 1996.
Howarth, Robert W. " anoint and Fish: Can They Co-Exist?" In eds. Thomas C. Jackson and Diana Reische, semivowel Alert, 51-72. San Francisco: Friends of Earth, 1981.
Most of the vessels involved in recent oil spills are registered abroad and have foreign crews. The use of Liberian give vessels is common and was encouraged by the national security governance of the United States Government to aid the oil industry to contract its costs after World War II. The Oil convalescence Act mandates that all ship officers on vessels in American waters be subjected to drug and alcohol testing.
Yergin, Daniel. The Prize. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Lean, Geoffrey. atlas of the Environment. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1994.
Arbuckle, J. Gordon (Ed.). Environmental Law Handbook. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes, 1991.
The final solution would be a reduction in the colony of the world on petroleum as a major(ip) source of energy. There are few signs that this will occur at any time in the near future.
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